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Mispricing of S&P 500 Index Options

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  • Stylianos Perrakis
  • Jens Carsten Jackwerth
  • George Constantinides

Abstract

Widespread violations of stochastic dominance by one-month S&P 500 index call options over 1986-2006 imply that a trader can improve expected utility by engaging in a zero-net-cost trade net of transaction costs and bid-ask spread. Although pre-crash option prices conform to the Black-Scholes-Merton model reasonably well, they are incorrectly priced if the distribution of the index return is estimated from time-series data. Substantial violations by post-crash OTM calls contradict the notion that the problem primarily lies with the left-hand tail of the index return distribution and that the smile is too steep. The decrease in violations over the post-crash period 1988-1995 is followed by a substantial increase over 1997-2006 which may be due to the lower quality of the data but, in any case, does not provide evidence that the options market is becoming more rational over time.
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Suggested Citation

  • Stylianos Perrakis & Jens Carsten Jackwerth & George Constantinides, 2005. "Mispricing of S&P 500 Index Options," Working Papers wp05-07, Warwick Business School, Finance Group.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbs:wpaper:wp05-07
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    File URL: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/wbs/research/wfri/rsrchcentres/ferc/wrkingpaprseries/fwp05-07.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Jensen, Mads Vestergaard & Pedersen, Lasse Heje, 2016. "Early option exercise: Never say never," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 121(2), pages 278-299.
    2. Alexander David & Pietro Veronesi, 2014. "Investors' and Central Bank's Uncertainty Embedded in Index Options," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 27(6), pages 1661-1716.
    3. Pierre Azoulay & Joshua S. Graff Zivin & Bhaven N. Sampat, 2011. "The Diffusion of Scientific Knowledge across Time and Space: Evidence from Professional Transitions for the Superstars of Medicine," NBER Chapters,in: The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity Revisited, pages 107-155 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Brendan K. Beare & Lawrence D. W. Schmidt, 2016. "An Empirical Test of Pricing Kernel Monotonicity," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(2), pages 338-356, March.
    5. Nicolae Garleanu & Lasse Heje Pedersen & Allen M. Poteshman, 2009. "Demand-Based Option Pricing," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(10), pages 4259-4299, October.
    6. Jules van Binsbergen & Michael Brandt & Ralph Koijen, 2012. "On the Timing and Pricing of Dividends," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(4), pages 1596-1618, June.
    7. George M. Constantinides & Michal Czerwonko & Jens Carsten Jackwerth & Stylianos Perrakis, 2011. "Are Options on Index Futures Profitable for Risk‐Averse Investors? Empirical Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 66(4), pages 1407-1437, August.
    8. Chatrath, Arjun & Christie-David, Rohan A. & Miao, Hong & Ramchander, Sanjay, 2015. "Short-term options: Clienteles, market segmentation, and event trading," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 237-250.
    9. Leippold, Markus & Su, Lujing, 2015. "Collateral smile," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 15-28.
    10. Alfredo Ibáñez, 2008. "The cross-section of average delta-hedge option returns under stochastic volatility," Review of Derivatives Research, Springer, vol. 11(3), pages 205-244, October.
    11. Peters, R. & van der Weide, R., 2012. "Volatility: Expectations and Realizations," CeNDEF Working Papers 12-04, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Center for Nonlinear Dynamics in Economics and Finance.
    12. Perrakis, Stylianos & Boloorforoosh, Ali, 2013. "Valuing catastrophe derivatives under limited diversification: A stochastic dominance approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 3157-3168.
    13. Ji Cao & Marc Rieger, 2013. "Risk classes for structured products: mathematical aspects and their implications on behavioral investors," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 167-183, May.
    14. Alexander David & Pietro Veronesi, 2011. "Investors' and Central Bank's Uncertainty Embedded in Index Options," NBER Working Papers 16764, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Urcola, Hernan A. & Irwin, Scott H., 2011. "Are Agricultural Options Overpriced?," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 36(1), April.
    16. Constantinides, George M. & Jackwerth, Jens Carsten & Perrakis, Stylianos, 2007. "Option Pricing: Real and Risk-Neutral Distributions," MPRA Paper 11637, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Yuri Golubev & Wolfgang Härdle & Roman Timofeev, 2014. "Testing monotonicity of pricing kernels," AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis, Springer;German Statistical Society, vol. 98(4), pages 305-326, October.
    18. Chen, Wei-Peng & Chung, Huimin & Lien, Donald, 2016. "Price discovery in the S&P 500 index derivatives markets," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 438-452.
    19. Panayiotis Andreou & Chris Charalambous & Spiros Martzoukos, 2014. "Assessing the performance of symmetric and asymmetric implied volatility functions," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 42(3), pages 373-397, April.
    20. Wolfgang Härdle & Volker Krätschmer & Rouslan Moro, 2009. "A Microeconomic Explanation of the EPK Paradox," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2009-010, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
    21. Chunpeng Yang & Bin Gao & Jianlei Yang, 2016. "Option pricing model with sentiment," Review of Derivatives Research, Springer, vol. 19(2), pages 147-164, July.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • G13 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Contingent Pricing; Futures Pricing

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