IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/vuw/vuwmba/6138.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

He PÄ pori Hinonga Whakamoe: Exploring Contributions to the Indigenous Social Enterprise Network in New Zealand

Author

Listed:
  • Cowie, Janelle

Abstract

There is a misalignment between MÄ ori Social Entrepreneurs believe social enterprise to be and the interpretation of MÄ ori values from the support services perspective. Without the knowledge of why MÄ ori choose social enterprise, and the inherent values system that operates within these models support services will continue to only partially understand the core motivations. For MÄ ori, social enterprise is not explicitly phrased, it is implicit and a lived experience. The social values of their organisation has multiple layers beyond the direct social impact of their core activity. It generates income for their whanÄ u, improving the oranga of the wider community (at hapu or Iwi level), creates a positive self-determination movement, and reinforces cultural survival. This report explores contributions to the indigenous social enterprise network in New Zealand. It provides valuable information for MÄ ori Social Entrepreneurs and the support services. Phase One focused on the value systems and motivations behind why MÄ ori choose a social enterprise model. The second phase which interviewed employees from MÄ ori Women’s Development Inc, Ä€kina Foundation, Te Puni KÅ kiri, and Nga Tai O Te Awa whose organisations support social enterprise endeavours and challenged their perspective of MÄ ori social enterprise. This marriage of the two groups highlighted several discrepancies in their understanding and knowledge of MÄ ori social enterprise. The research leads to four key findings recommendations for the sector. It also presents opportunities to broaden the reach of current research, and extend the knowledge on the topic with quantifiable data methods. MÄ ori Social Entrepreneurs biggest internal struggle is a trade-off between social and economic value. There is a complete comprehension of the weighted currency of a for profit model over a social enterprise or non-profit model. Economic drivers are strong but conceptually, and often in practice, energy is invested in the social merit of their individual endeavours. Phase One participants placed emphasis on generating income as a core driver, but not for it’s pure economicvalue; to enable them to fund their purpose and increase the wellbeing of their community, as opposed to creating profit. Their organisations are legitimised at a moral level, and their operating models reflect this. Urban MÄ ori Social Entrepreneurs are being underrepresented in current support service capacity. They feel isolated despite the physical access to support services involved in this research and other mainstream services. Mainstream services operate in urban areas, but for accessibility and cultural incompatibility reasons, these services are failing MÄ ori Social Entrepreneurs. Effort by Phase Two participants highlighted a concerted focus on regional areas. This has created a gap, where urban, MÄ ori Social Entrepreneurs have been overlooked. This is especially relevant to the male participants of Phase One, who have also been challenged by traditional support networks such as the Iwi and their concept of what role tech start-ups have in the cultural survival and wellbeing of their people. There is an opportunity for support services to develop cultural models and mentorship to enable capabilities further within urban centres. Developing the language must be a core focus for the sector, and is not a mutually exclusive task. The ambiguity of definition and scope presents an opportunity for MÄ ori to contribute to the shaping of the language. They can develop a culturally specific model, and language on their own terms. Social enterprise has an undeniable positive impact on both the New Zealand economy and welfare of the population. This has the potential of building cultural tenacity in a new hybrid sector, post Treaty settlement New Zealand.

Suggested Citation

  • Cowie, Janelle, 2016. "He PÄ pori Hinonga Whakamoe: Exploring Contributions to the Indigenous Social Enterprise Network in New Zealand," MBA Research Papers 6138, Victoria University of Wellington, School of Management.
  • Handle: RePEc:vuw:vuwmba:6138
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://researcharchive.vuw.ac.nz/handle/10063/6138
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Vivienne Shaw & Jenny Darroch, 2004. "Barriers to Internationalisation: A Study of Entrepreneurial New Ventures in New Zealand," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 2(4), pages 327-343, December.
    2. Dennis Foley, 2008. "Does culture and social capital impact on the networking attributes of indigenous entrepreneurs?," Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 2(3), pages 204-224, August.
    3. Paul Tapsell & Christine Woods, 2010. "Social entrepreneurship and innovation: Self-organization in an indigenous context," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(6), pages 535-556, October.
    4. Pascal Dey & Chris Steyaert, 2010. "The politics of narrating social entrepreneurship," Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 4(1), pages 85-108, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Pascal Dey & Chris Steyaert, 2016. "Rethinking the Space of Ethics in Social Entrepreneurship: Power, Subjectivity, and Practices of Freedom," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 133(4), pages 627-641, February.
    2. Shaheer, Noman Ahmed & Li, Sali, 2020. "The CAGE around cyberspace? How digital innovations internationalize in a virtual world," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 35(1).
    3. Baxter, Jamie Scott & Chatzichristos, Georgios & Christmann, Gabriela & Hennebry, Barraí & Kovanen, Sunna & Novikova, Marina & Olmedo, Lucas & Stoustrup, Sune W. & van Twuijver, Mara & Umantseva, Anna, 2020. "Social Enterprises in Structurally Weak Rural Regions: Innovative Troubleshooters in Action. Handbook for Practitioners," IRS Dialog 6/2020, Leibniz Institute for Research on Society and Space (IRS).
    4. Babita Bhatt & Israr Qureshi & Suhaib Riaz, 2019. "Social Entrepreneurship in Non-munificent Institutional Environments and Implications for Institutional Work: Insights from China," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 154(3), pages 605-630, February.
    5. Tanja Collavo, 2018. "Unpacking Social Entrepreneurship: Exploring the Definition Chaos and Its Consequences in England," Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Innovation, Fundacja Upowszechniająca Wiedzę i Naukę "Cognitione", vol. 14(2), pages 49-82.
    6. Choi, Nia & Majumdar, Satyajit, 2014. "Social entrepreneurship as an essentially contested concept: Opening a new avenue for systematic future research," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 363-376.
    7. Orlando Petiz Pereira & Maria Manuela Coutinho, 2019. "Solidarity economy, social entrepreneurship and spiritual intelligence: the vertices of social inclusion. A case study in Portugal in the field of addictive behaviours and dependencies," International Journal of Business and Social Research, MIR Center for Socio-Economic Research, vol. 9(3), pages 38-51, March.
    8. Orlando Petiz Pereira & Maria Manuela Coutinho, 2019. "Solidarity economy, social entrepreneurship and spiritual intelligence: the vertices of social inclusion. A case study in Portugal in the field of addictive behaviours and dependencies," International Journal of Business and Social Research, LAR Center Press, vol. 9(3), pages 38-51, March.
    9. Aleksandra Wąsowska, 2016. "Perception of Export Barriers at Different Stages of the Internatonalizaton Process - Evidence from European SMEs," Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Innovation, Fundacja Upowszechniająca Wiedzę i Naukę "Cognitione", vol. 12(4), pages 29-49.
    10. Venot, Jean-Philippe, 2016. "A Success of Some Sort: Social Enterprises and Drip Irrigation in the Developing World," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 69-81.
    11. Richard Fabling & Lynda Sanderson, 2010. "Entrepreneurship and aggregate merchandise trade growth in New Zealand," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 8(2), pages 182-199, June.
    12. José Pinho & Lurdes Martins, 2010. "Exporting barriers: Insights from Portuguese small- and medium-sized exporters and non-exporters," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 8(3), pages 254-272, September.
    13. Kahiya, Eldrede T., 2018. "Five decades of research on export barriers: Review and future directions," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 1172-1188.
    14. Symeonidou, Noni & Bruneel, Johan & Autio, Erkko, 2017. "Commercialization strategy and internationalization outcomes in technology-based new ventures," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 302-317.
    15. Kate V. Lewis, 2016. "Identity capital: an exploration in the context of youth social entrepreneurship," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(3-4), pages 191-205, March.
    16. Nowinski, Witold & Rialp, Alex, 2013. "Drivers and strategies of international new ventures from a Central European transition economy," Journal of East European Management Studies, Rainer Hampp Verlag, vol. 18(2), pages 191-231.
    17. Marzena Starnawska, 2016. "Social Entrepreneurship Research – Challenges, Explanations and Suggestions for the Field Development (Przedsiebiorczosc spoleczna – wyzwania, przyczyny i sugestie dla obszaru badawczego)," Problemy Zarzadzania, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Management, vol. 14(61), pages 13-31.
    18. Murat ŞENTÜRK & Enver MENGÜ, 2020. "Social Entrepreneurship From Sociological Perspective," Journal of Economy Culture and Society, Istanbul University, Faculty of Economics, vol. 61(1), pages 355-369, June.
    19. Oparaocha, Gospel Onyema, 2015. "SMEs and international entrepreneurship: An institutional network perspective," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(5), pages 861-873.
    20. López, Dorotea & Muñoz, Felipe, 2021. "Trade finance constrains as a barrier for Chilean services internationalization," TEC Empresarial, Business School, Costa Rica Institute of Technology (ITCR), vol. 15(1), pages 2-19.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Social; Enterprise; MÄ ori;
    All these keywords.

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:vuw:vuwmba:6138. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Library Technology Services). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/fcvuwnz.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.