Sensitivity of cautious-relaxed investment policies to target variation
This study builds on recent findings that target-based utility measures, used in the dynamic portfolio optimisation, deliver investment policies that can generate leftskewed payoff distributions. These policies can lead to small probabilities of low payoffs. This is in contrast to the classical portfolio optimisation strategies that commonly deliver right-skewed payoff distributions, which imply a high probability of losses. The left-skewed payoff distributions can be obtained when a “cautious-relaxed” investment policy is applied in portfolio management. Such a policy will be adopted by investors who are both cautious in seeking a payoff meeting a certain target, but relaxed toward the possibility of exceeding it. We use computational methods to analyse the effects of varying the target on the payoff distribution and also examine how the fund manager’s explicit preferences, when they differ from the investor’s, can impact the distribution. We found that increasing the target causes the distribution to become less left skewed. Lowering the target slightly, keeps the left-skewed payoff distribution albeit the mode diminishes. Decreasing the target substantially so it is below the safe investment payoff, changes the skew. Investor’s payoff will not suffer even if the actual fund manager allows for their own utility in the optimisation problem.
|Date of creation:||2013|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +64 (4) 463-5353
Fax: +64 (4) 463-5014
Web page: http://www.victoria.ac.nz/sef
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Patrick L. Brockett & Yehuda Kahane, 1992. "Risk, Return, Skewness and Preference," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 38(6), pages 851-866, June.
- Azzato, Jeffrey D. & Krawczyk, Jacek B., 2008. "A parallel Matlab package for approximating the solution to a continuous-time stochastic optimal control problem," MPRA Paper 9993, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- R. C. Merton, 1970.
"Optimum Consumption and Portfolio Rules in a Continuous-time Model,"
58, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Merton, Robert C., 1971. "Optimum consumption and portfolio rules in a continuous-time model," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 373-413, December.
- Bali, Turan G. & Cakici, Nusret & Whitelaw, Robert F., 2011. "Maxing out: Stocks as lotteries and the cross-section of expected returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(2), pages 427-446, February.
- Azzato, Jeffrey & Krawczyk, Jacek B & Sissons, Christopher, 2011. "On loss-avoiding lump-sum pension optimization with contingent targets," Working Paper Series 1532, Victoria University of Wellington, School of Economics and Finance.
- Harry Markowitz, 1952. "Portfolio Selection," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 7(1), pages 77-91, 03.
- Alistair Windsor & Jacek B. Krawczyk, 1997. "A Matlab Package for Approximating the Solution to a Continuous- Time Stochastic Optimal Control Problem," Computational Economics 9710002, EconWPA.
- Jacek B. Krawczyk, 2000. "A Markovian Approximated Solution To A Portfolio Management Problem," Computing in Economics and Finance 2000 233, Society for Computational Economics.
- Arjan B. Berkelaar & Roy Kouwenberg & Thierry Post, 2004.
"Optimal Portfolio Choice under Loss Aversion,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 86(4), pages 973-987, November.
- Samuelson, Paul A, 1969. "Lifetime Portfolio Selection by Dynamic Stochastic Programming," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 51(3), pages 239-46, August.
- Dierkes, Maik & Erner, Carsten & Zeisberger, Stefan, 2010. "Investment horizon and the attractiveness of investment strategies: A behavioral approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 1032-1046, May.
- Daniel G. Goldstein & Eric J. Johnson & William F. Sharpe, 2008. "Choosing Outcomes versus Choosing Products: Consumer-Focused Retirement Investment Advice," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 35(3), pages 440-456, 08.
- Tversky, Amos & Kahneman, Daniel, 1992. " Advances in Prospect Theory: Cumulative Representation of Uncertainty," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 5(4), pages 297-323, October.
- Xue Dong He & Xun Yu Zhou, 2011. "Portfolio Choice Under Cumulative Prospect Theory: An Analytical Treatment," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 57(2), pages 315-331, February.
- Azzato, Jeffrey & Krawczyk, Jacek, 2006. "SOCSol4L An improved MATLAB package for approximating the solution to a continuous-time stochastic optimal control problem," MPRA Paper 1179, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Yiu, K. F. C., 2004. "Optimal portfolios under a value-at-risk constraint," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 28(7), pages 1317-1334, April.
- Hanqing Jin & Xun Yu Zhou, 2008. "Behavioral Portfolio Selection In Continuous Time," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(3), pages 385-426.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:vuw:vuwecf:2972. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Library Technology Services)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.