The Prices of Goods and Services in New Zealand : An International Comparison
This paper analyses the latest (2005) data available from the World Bank’s InternationalComparison Program (ICP). It assesses the extent to which the prices of goods and services in New Zealand (NZ) differ from those observed in other OECD countries, and Australia in particular. The main objective is to answer the question: “Are the prices of specific goods and services especially high or low in New Zealand by international standards?” The answer appears to be “yes”, leading naturally to the further questions of: “why, and what might the consequences be for prices and productivity in the wider New Zealand economy?” International price comparisons, even those undertaken carefully such as the ICP, are fraught with difficulties and results should be interpreted cautiously. However, a number of broad features of price level in NZ relative to other OECD countries stand out. Most prominently, goods and services associated with investment in general, and property, construction and utilities (water, gas, electricity) in particular, appear to be relatively expensive in NZ. Secondly, passenger transport (excluding private motor vehicles), and alcohol & tobacco, prices are high relative to other countries. The former involve transport industries - such as air and rail transport - that are subject to domestic and international regulation, or have some quasi-monopoly power within the NZ economy. In some cases, lack of economies of scale may also be relevant due to the limited size of the domestic NZ market. High alcohol, and especially tobacco, prices appear to be at least partly related to relatively high excise levels in NZ, though this is balanced to some extent by relatively low VAT/GST rates. Thirdly prices for key exportable products from New Zealand are relative cheap – especially beef/veal/lamb, fish, and dairy products such as butter which may reflect New Zealand’s comparative advantage in such goods. By contrast expensive tradeable products include poultry, pork and fresh milk services that are largely government provided – such as education, health and social protection, and hence are inherently difficult to measure or interpret – are also relatively inexpensive in NZ, reflecting NZ’s relatively low average wage levels within the OECD, despite higher intermediate and capital input costs. The large share of wages in total costs in these services make them important determinants of measured (non-market) prices in these activities.
|Date of creation:||2014|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: School of Accounting & Commercial Law, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand|
Phone: +64 (4) 463 5775
Fax: +64 (4) 463 5076
Web page: http://www.victoria.ac.nz/sacl/about/chair-in-public-finance
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Rod Falvey & Norman Gemmell, 1998. "Why are Prices so Low in Asia?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(7), pages 897-911, 09.
- Gemma Mabin, 2011. "New Zealand's Exchange Rate Cycles: Impacts and Policy," Treasury Working Paper Series 11/01, New Zealand Treasury.
- Falvey, Rodney E & Gemmell, Norman, 1996. "Are Services Income-Elastic? Some New Evidence," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 42(3), pages 257-69, September.
- Bhagwati, Jagdish N, 1984. "Why Are Services Cheaper in the Poor Countries?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 94(374), pages 279-86, June.
- Falvey, Rodney E & Gemmell, Norman, 1996. "A Formalisation and Test of the Factor Productivity Explanation of International Differences in Service Prices," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 37(1), pages 85-102, February.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:vuw:vuwcpf:3276. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Library Technology Services)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.