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The Economics of Oil, Biofuel and Food Commodities

  • Eric Bahel
  • Walid Marrouch
  • Gerard Gaudet

In this paper we study the effects on the food market of the introduction of biofuels as a substitute for fossil fuel in the energy market. We consider a world economy with an oil cartel and a competitive fringe of farmers producing energy in the form of biofuels. Farmers also produce food and sell it on the world food market. We determine the resulting relationship between prices in the energy and food markets and characterize the cartel's extraction path and the price path of energy. We show that the price of food will be growing as long the oil stock is being depleted, whether population is growing or not, and that it will keep growing after the oil stock is exhausted if population is growing.

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Paper provided by Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number e07-26.

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Length: 17 pages
Date of creation: 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:vpi:wpaper:e07-26
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  1. CHAKRAVORTY Ujjayant & MAGNE Bertrand & MOREAUX Michel, 2006. "A dynamic model of food and clean energy," LERNA Working Papers 06.10.203, LERNA, University of Toulouse.
  2. Rick van der Ploeg & Cees Withagen, 2010. "Is There Really a Green Paradox?," OxCarre Working Papers 035, Oxford Centre for the Analysis of Resource Rich Economies, University of Oxford.
  3. Hassler, John & Sinn, Hans-Werner, 2012. "The Fossile Episode," CEPR Discussion Papers 9256, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Andrade de Sa, Saraly & Palmer, Charles & Engel, Stefanie, 2010. "Ethanol Production, Food and Forests," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Hannover 2010 21, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
  5. Hongli Feng & Bruce A. Babcock, 2010. "Impacts of Ethanol on Planted Acreage in Market Equilibrium," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 92(3), pages 789-802.
  6. Sjak Smulders & Yacov Tsur & Amos Zemel, 2010. "Announcing Climate Policy: Can a Green Paradox Arise without Scarcity?," CESifo Working Paper Series 3307, CESifo Group Munich.
  7. Hubert, Marie-Helene & Chakravorty, Ujjayant & van Kooten, G. Cornelis, 2008. "Biofuels, Agriculture And Climate Change," 2008 International Congress, August 26-29, 2008, Ghent, Belgium 44259, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
  8. Hochman Gal & Sexton Steven E & Zilberman David D, 2008. "The Economics of Biofuel Policy and Biotechnology," Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization, De Gruyter, vol. 6(2), pages 1-24, December.
  9. Frederick van der Ploeg & Cees Withagen, 2010. "Is there really a Green Paradox?," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 10-020/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 27 Aug 2012.
  10. Hans-Werner Sinn, 2008. "Public policies against global warming: a supply side approach," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 15(4), pages 360-394, August.
  11. Salant, Stephen W, 1976. "Exhaustible Resources and Industrial Structure: A Nash-Cournot Approach to the World Oil Market," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(5), pages 1079-93, October.
  12. Ciaian, Pavel & Kancs, d'Artis, 2010. "Interdependencies in the Energy-Bioenergy-Food Price Systems: A Cointegration Analysis," 2010 Annual Meeting, July 25-27, 2010, Denver, Colorado 61009, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  13. Chakravorty, Ujjayant & Hubert, Marie-Helene & Nostbakken, Linda, 2009. "Fuel versus Food," Working Papers 2009-20, University of Alberta, Department of Economics.
  14. GAUDET Gérard & MOREAUX Michel & WITHAGEN Cees, 2006. "The Alberta dilemma: Optimal sharing of a water resource by an agricultural and an oil sector," LERNA Working Papers 06.06.199, LERNA, University of Toulouse.
  15. Ujjayant Chakravorty & Marie-Hélène Hubert & Michel Moreaux & Linda Nøstbakken, 2012. "The Long Run Impact of Biofuels on Food Prices," CESifo Working Paper Series 3876, CESifo Group Munich.
  16. Quentin Grafton, R. & Kompas, Tom & Van Long, Ngo, 2012. "Substitution between biofuels and fossil fuels: Is there a green paradox?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 64(3), pages 328-341.
  17. Rajagopal, Deepak & Zilberman, David, 2007. "Review of environmental, economic and policy aspects of biofuels," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4341, The World Bank.
  18. Nazlioglu, Saban, 2011. "World oil and agricultural commodity prices: Evidence from nonlinear causality," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 2935-2943, May.
  19. Sinn, Hans-Werner, 2012. "The Green Paradox: A Supply-Side Approach to Global Warming," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262016680, June.
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