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Nonlinearities in Cross-Country Growth Regressions: A Bayesian Averaging of Thresholds (BAT) Approach

We propose a framework for assessing the existence and quantifying the effect of threshold effects in cross-country growth regressions in the presence of model uncertainty. The method is based on Bayesian model averaging tech- niques and generalizes the Bayesian Averaging of Classical Estimates (BACE) method put forward by Sala-i-Martin, Doppelhofer, and Miller (2004). We ap- ply the method presented in this paper to a set of 21 variables that have been found to be robustly related to economic growth in a cross-section of 88 coun- tries. We find no evidence of robust threshold effects generated by the initial level of GDP per capita. However, we find that the proportion of years a country has been open to trade is an important source of nonlinear effects on economic growth.

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File URL: http://homepage.univie.ac.at/Papers.Econ/RePEc/vie/viennp/vie0608.pdf
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Paper provided by University of Vienna, Department of Economics in its series Vienna Economics Papers with number 0608.

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Date of creation: Sep 2006
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Handle: RePEc:vie:viennp:0608
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.univie.ac.at/vwl

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  1. Xavier X. Sala-i-Martin, 1997. "I Just Ran Four Million Regressions," NBER Working Papers 6252, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Chris Papageorgiou, . "Trade as a Threshold Variable for Multiple Regimes," Departmental Working Papers 2001-06, Department of Economics, Louisiana State University.
  3. Carmen Fernandez & Eduardo Ley & Mark Steel, 2001. "Model uncertainty in cross-country growth regressions," Econometrics 0110002, EconWPA.
  4. Raftery, Adrian E. & Dean, Nema, 2006. "Variable Selection for Model-Based Clustering," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 101, pages 168-178, March.
  5. Peter C.B. Phillips, 1990. "To Criticize the Critics: An Objective Bayesian Analysis of Stochastic Trends," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 950, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  6. Hansen, B.E., 1991. "Inference when a Nuisance Parameter is Not Identified Under the Null Hypothesis," RCER Working Papers 296, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
  7. Koop, Gary & Potter, Simon M., 1998. "Bayes factors and nonlinearity: Evidence from economic time series1," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 88(2), pages 251-281, November.
  8. Mark S. Handcock & Adrian E. Raftery & Jeremy M. Tantrum, 2007. "Model-based clustering for social networks," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 170(2), pages 301-354.
  9. Jesús Crespo Cuaresma, 2002. "Some million thresholds: Nonlinearity and cross-country growth regressions," Vienna Economics Papers 0210, University of Vienna, Department of Economics.
  10. Bruce E. Hansen, 1996. "Sample Splitting and Threshold Estimation," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 319., Boston College Department of Economics, revised 12 May 1998.
  11. Azariadis, Costas & Drazen, Allan, 1990. "Threshold Externalities in Economic Development," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 105(2), pages 501-26, May.
  12. Gernot Doppelhofer & Ronald I. Miller & Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 2000. "Determinants of Long-Term Growth: A Bayesian Averaging of Classical Estimates (Bace) Approach," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 266, OECD Publishing.
  13. Steven N. Durlauf & Danny T. Quah, 1998. "The New Empirics of Economic Growth," NBER Working Papers 6422, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Brock,W.A. & Durlauf,S.N., 2000. "Growth economics and reality," Working papers 24, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
  15. Kormendi, Roger C. & Meguire, Philip G., 1985. "Macroeconomic determinants of growth: Cross-country evidence," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 141-163, September.
  16. Papageorgiou, Chris, 2006. "Trade as a threshold variable for multiple regimes: Reply," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 91(3), pages 460-461, June.
  17. Durlauf, Steven N. & Kourtellos, Andros & Minkin, Artur, 2001. "The local Solow growth model," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(4-6), pages 928-940, May.
  18. Barro, R.J., 1989. "Economic Growth In A Cross Section Of Countries," RCER Working Papers 201, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
  19. Huang, Ho-Chuan (River) & Chang, Ya-Kai, 2006. "Trade as a threshold variable for multiple regimes: A comment," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 91(3), pages 458-459, June.
  20. Eicher, Theo S. & Papageorgiou, Chris & Roehn, Oliver, 2007. "Unraveling the fortunes of the fortunate: An Iterative Bayesian Model Averaging (IBMA) approach," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 494-514, September.
  21. Jeffrey D. Sachs & Andrew Warner, 1995. "Economic Reform and the Process of Global Integration," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 26(1, 25th A), pages 1-118.
  22. Leamer, Edward E, 1983. "Let's Take the Con Out of Econometrics," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(1), pages 31-43, March.
  23. Levine, Ross & Renelt, David, 1991. "A sensitivity analysis of cross-country growth regressions," Policy Research Working Paper Series 609, The World Bank.
  24. Fraley C. & Raftery A.E., 2002. "Model-Based Clustering, Discriminant Analysis, and Density Estimation," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 97, pages 611-631, June.
  25. Winford H. Masanjala & Chris Papageorgiou, 2004. "The Solow model with CES technology: nonlinearities and parameter heterogeneity," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(2), pages 171-201.
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