Income Shifting, Investment, and Tax Competition: Theory and Evidence from Provincial Taxation in Canada
We study corporate income taxation when firms operating in multiple jurisdictions can shift income using tax planning strategies. Because income of corporate groups is not consolidated for tax purposes in Canada, firms may use financial techniques, such as lending among affiliates, to reduce subnational corporate taxes. A simple theoretical model shows how income shifting affects real investment, government revenues, and tax base elasticities, depending on whether firms must allocate income to provinces or not. We then analyze data from administrative tax records to compare the behaviour of corporate subsidiaries that may engage in income shifting to comparable firms that must use the statutory allocation formula to determine their taxable in each province. The evidence suggests that income shifting has pronounced effects on provincial tax bases. According to our preferred estimate, the elasticity of taxable income with respect to tax rates for “income shifting” firms is 4.9, compared to 2.3 for other, comparable firms.
|Date of creation:||May 2001|
|Date of revision:||Apr 2003|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: 416 978 2451
Web page: http://www-2.rotman.utoronto.ca/iib
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Thiess Buettner, 1999.
"Determinants of Tax Rates in Local Capital Income Taxation: A Theoretical Model and Evidence from Germany,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
194, CESifo Group Munich.
- Thiess Büttner, 1999. "Determinants of Tax Rates in Local Capital Income Taxation: A Theoretical Model and Evidence from Germany," FinanzArchiv: Public Finance Analysis, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 56(3/4), pages 363-, July.
- Altshuler, Rosanne & Grubert, Harry, 2003.
"Repatriation taxes, repatriation strategies and multinational financial policy,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 73-107, January.
- Rosanne Altshuler & Harry Grubert, 2002. "Repatriation Taxes, Repatriation Strategies and Multinational Financial Policy," Departmental Working Papers 200009, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
- Rosanne Altshuler & Harry Grubert, 2001. "Repatriation Taxes, Repatriation Strategies and Multinational Financial Policy," NBER Working Papers 8144, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Roger H. Gordon & Jeffrey K. MacKie-Mason & R. Glenn Hubbard, 1995. "The Importance of Income Shifting to the Design and Analysis of Tax Policy," NBER Chapters, in: Taxing Multinational Corporations, pages 29-38 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Gordon, Roger H & Wilson, John Douglas, 1986. "An Examination of Multijurisdictional Corporate Income Taxation under Formula Apportionment," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(6), pages 1357-73, November.
- David Harris & Randall Morck & Joel Slemrod & Bernard Yeung, 1991.
"Income Shifting in U.S. Multinational Corporations,"
NBER Working Papers
3924, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- David Harris & Randall Morck & Joel B. Slemrod, 1993. "Income Shifting in U.S. Multinational Corporations," NBER Chapters, in: Studies in International Taxation, pages 277-308 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Harris, D. & Morck, R. & Slemrod, J., 1991. "Income Shifting in U.S. Multinational Corporations," Working Papers 287, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
- Wilson, John Douglas, 1999. "Theories of Tax Competition," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 52(n. 2), pages 269-304, June.
- Dale W. Jorgenson & Kevin J. Stiroh, 2000.
"Raising the Speed Limit: US Economic Growth in the Information Age,"
OECD Economics Department Working Papers
261, OECD Publishing.
- Dale W. Jorgenson & Kevin J. Stiroh, 2000. "Raising the Speed Limit: U.S. Economic Growth in the Information Age," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 31(1), pages 125-236.
- Janeba, Eckhard & Peters, Wolfgang, 1999. "Tax Evasion, Tax Competition and the Gains from Nondiscrimination: The Case of Interest Taxation in Europe," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(452), pages 93-101, January.
- Harry Grubert & Joel Slemrod, 1994.
"The Effect of Taxes on Investment and Income Shifting to Puerto Rico,"
NBER Working Papers
4869, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Harry Grubert & Joel Slemrod, 1998. "The Effect Of Taxes On Investment And Income Shifting To Puerto Rico," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(3), pages 365-373, August.
- Haufler, Andreas & Schjelderup, Guttorm, 2000.
"Corporate Tax Systems and Cross Country Profit Shifting,"
Oxford Economic Papers,
Oxford University Press, vol. 52(2), pages 306-25, April.
- Haufler, Andreas & Schjelderup, Guttorm, 2000. "Corporate tax systems and cross country profit shifting," Munich Reprints in Economics 20419, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
- Haufler, A. & Schjelderup, G., 1999. "Corporate Tax Systems and Cross Country Profit Shifting," Papers 1/99, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration-.
- Thomas A. Gresik, 2001. "The Taxing Task of Taxing Transnationals," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 39(3), pages 800-838, September.
- Jack M. Mintz, 2000. "Taxation of Investment and Finance in an International Setting: Implications for Tax Competition," CoFE Discussion Paper 00-33, Center of Finance and Econometrics, University of Konstanz.
- Vijay Jog & Jianmin Tang, 2001. "Tax Reforms, Debt Shifting and Tax Revenues: Multinational Corporations in Canada," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 8(1), pages 5-25, January.
- Michael Devereux & Rachel Griffith, 1996.
"Taxes and the location of production: evidence from a panel of US multinationals,"
IFS Working Papers
W96/14, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Devereux, Michael P. & Griffith, Rachel, 1998. "Taxes and the location of production: evidence from a panel of US multinationals," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(3), pages 335-367, June.
- Michael Smart, 1998. "Taxation and Deadweight Loss in a System of Intergovernmental Transfers," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 31(1), pages 189-206, February.
- Sam Bucovetsky & Michael Smart, 2006.
"The Efficiency Consequences of Local Revenue Equalization: Tax Competition and Tax Distortions,"
Journal of Public Economic Theory,
Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 8(1), pages 119-144, 01.
- Sam Bucovetsky & Michael Smart, 2002. "The Efficiency Consequences of Local Revenue Equalization: Tax Competition and Tax Distortions," CESifo Working Paper Series 767, CESifo Group Munich.
- James R. Hines Jr., 1992.
"Credit and Deferral as International Investment Incentives,"
NBER Working Papers
4191, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hines, James Jr., 1994. "Credit and deferral as international investment incentives," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 323-347, October.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ttp:itpwps:0402. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Richard Bird)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.