Targeted policy design in transportation: the case of the ferry market
We model a ferry market where passengers are heterogeneous in their valuation of waiting time and, unlike in previous studies, can take services from all operators. Analyzing their behavior when two operators are active, each providing one service, we find that complex patterns of product differentiation emerge between two goods that (i) do not exactly correspond to the available services and (ii) display service frequencies as quality attributes. A (low-quality) basic good, coinciding with the cheaper service, attracts low-time-value passengers. A (high-quality) composite good, which is a bundle of the two available services, appeals to high-time-value passengers. Consequently, demand is positive for either operator so that an inefficient operator is not crowded out. In the specific case of a mixed duopoly, a price-aggressive public operator spans discipline over (but does not monopolize) the whole market; a soft one boosts "quality" (i.e., frequency) vis-à-vis fraction of the population only, that is yet larger than under classical vertical differentiation. Policy-makers pursuing redistribution objectives should target the cheaper service, in general, privileging either a raise in its frequency (when it is low) or a cut in its price (when frequency is high), depending upon the group of passengers they wish to support.
|Date of creation:||2012|
|Date of revision:||2012|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Viale Kennedy, n. 4, 43100 Parma, Italy|
Phone: ++39 0657335294
Fax: ++39 0657335282
Web page: http://www.sietitalia.org/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Mohring, Herbert, 1972. "Optimization and Scale Economies in Urban Bus Transportation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(4), pages 591-604, September.
- Matutes, Carmen & Regibeau, Pierre, 1992. "Compatibility and Bundling of Complementary Goods in a Duopoly," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(1), pages 37-54, March.
- Jaskold Gabszewicz, J. & Thisse, J. -F., 1979.
"Price competition, quality and income disparities,"
Journal of Economic Theory,
Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 340-359, June.
- Mohring, Herbert & Schroeter, John R. & Wiboonchutikula, Paitoon, 1987.
"The Values of Waiting Time, Travel Time, and a Seat on a Bus,"
Staff General Research Papers Archive
11117, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Herbert Mohring & John Schroeter & Paitoon Wiboonchutikula, 1987. "The Values of Waiting Time, Travel Time, and a Seat on a Bus," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 18(1), pages 40-56, Spring.
- A. Michael Spence, 1975. "Monopoly, Quality, and Regulation," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 6(2), pages 417-429, Autumn.
- Acutt, MZ & Dodgson, JS, 1995. "Cross-elasticities of demand for travel," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 2(4), pages 271-277, October.
- McFadden, Daniel, 1974. "The measurement of urban travel demand," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 303-328, November.
- Yang, Hai & Yan Kong, Hoi & Meng, Qiang, 2001. "Value-of-time distributions and competitive bus services," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 411-424, December.
- Leurent, Fabien, 1993. "Cost versus time equilibrium over a network," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 71(2), pages 205-221, December.
- Peran van Reeven, 2008. "Subsidisation of Urban Public Transport and the Mohring Effect," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, University of Bath, vol. 42(2), pages 349-359, May.
- Bergantino, Angela Stefania & de Villemeur, Étienne & Vinella, Annalisa, 2007.
"Partial Regulation in Vertically Differentiated Industries,"
IDEI Working Papers
502, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse, revised Apr 2010.
- Angela S. Bergantino & Etienne Billette De Villemeur & Annalisa Vinella, 2011. "Partial Regulation in Vertically Differentiated Industries," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 13(2), pages 255-287, 04.
- Lorenz NETT, 1993. "Mixed Oligopoly With Homogeneous Goods," Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(3), pages 367-393, 07.
- Billette de Villemeur, Etienne, 2004. "Regulation in the air: price-and-frequency caps," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 465-476, November.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sit:wpaper:12_05. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Edoardo Marcucci)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.