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Risk and Evolution

  • Theodore To
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I examine a Knightian model of entrepreneurial risk and investment where in addition to the self-selection process for choosing entrepreneurs, there is an evolutionary selection process over the representation of various risk attitudes. Under a standard evolutionary dynamic, rather than converging to a population of risk-neutrals (fitness maximizers), the population converges to a stationary distribution where both risk-averse and risk-loving types are represented and where only the risk-loving types invest. Many types are represented in stationary population distributions because an evolutionary market environment protects and encourages diversity with different types specalizing in different activities and in the steady state each type earns, on average, the same objective payoff.

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Paper provided by Centre for Research into Industry, Enterprise, Finance and the Firm in its series CRIEFF Discussion Papers with number 9513.

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Date of creation: Oct 1995
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:san:crieff:9513
Contact details of provider: Postal: School of Economics and Finance, University of St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9AL
Phone: 01334 462420
Fax: 01334 462438
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  1. Ed Hopkins, 1995. "Learning, Matching and Aggregation," Game Theory and Information 9512001, EconWPA.
  2. Fudenberg, Drew & Tirole, Jean, 1984. "The Fat-Cat Effect, the Puppy-Dog Ploy, and the Lean and Hungry Look," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(2), pages 361-66, May.
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