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Models of Firm Dynamics and the Hazard Rate of Exits: Reconciling Theory and Evidence using Hazard Regression Models

This Paper considers empirical work relating to models of firm dynamics. It is shown that a hazard regression model for firm exits, with a modification to accommodate age-varying covariate effects, provides an adequate framework accommodating many of the features of interest in empirical studies on firm dynamics. Modelling implications of some of the popular theoretical models are considered and a set of empirical procedures for verifying theoretical implications of the models are proposed.The proposed hazard regression models can accommodate negative effects of initial size that increase to zero with age (active learning model), negative initial size effects that may increase with age, but stay permanently negative (passive learning model), conditional and unconditional hazard rates that decrease with age at higher ages, and adverse effects of macroeconomic shocks that decrease with age of the firm.The methods are illustrated using data on quoted UK firms. Consistent with the active learning model, the effect of initial size is significantly negative for a young firm and falls to zero with age.The hazard function conditional on size, other firm and industry-level characteristics, and macroeconomic conditions decreases with age only at higher ages, but shows the weaker property of Increasing Mean Residual Life over its entire life-duration. Instability in exchange rates affects survival of very young firms strongly, and the effect decreases to insignificant levels for older firms.

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Paper provided by Centre for Research into Industry, Enterprise, Finance and the Firm in its series CRIEFF Discussion Papers with number 0502.

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Date of creation: Feb 2005
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Handle: RePEc:san:crieff:0502
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  1. Bhattacharje,e A. & C.Higson & S.Holly & P.Kattuman, 2002. "Macro Economic Instability and Business Exit: Determinants of Failures and Acquisitions of Large UK Firms," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2002 27, Royal Economic Society.
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  9. Bhattacharjee, A. & Samarjit Das, 2002. "Testing Proportionality in Duration Models with Respect to Continuous Covariates," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0220, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  10. Bhattacharjee, Arnab, 2004. "Estimation in hazard regression models under ordered departures from proportionality," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 517-536, October.
  11. P. Hall & B. Presnell, 1999. "Intentionally biased bootstrap methods," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 61(1), pages 143-158.
  12. Marcus Asplund & Volker Nocke, 2003. "Firm Turnover in Imperfectly Competitive Markets," PIER Working Paper Archive 03-010, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
  13. S.A. Lippman & R.P. Rumelt, 1982. "Uncertain Imitability: An Analysis of Interfirm Differences in Efficiency under Competition," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 13(2), pages 418-438, Autumn.
  14. Jovanovic, Boyan, 1982. "Selection and the Evolution of Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(3), pages 649-70, May.
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  16. Murphy, S. A. & Sen, P. K., 1991. "Time-dependent coefficients in a Cox-type regression model," Stochastic Processes and their Applications, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 153-180, October.
  17. Val Eugene Lambson, 1992. "Competitive Profits in the Long Run," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 59(1), pages 125-142.
  18. Torben Martinussen, 2002. "Efficient Estimation of Fixed and Time-varying Covariate Effects in Multiplicative Intensity Models," Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, Danish Society for Theoretical Statistics;Finnish Statistical Society;Norwegian Statistical Association;Swedish Statistical Association, vol. 29(1), pages 57-74.
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