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Resource Transfers to the Elderly: Do Adult Children Substitute Financial Transfers for Time Transfers?

Using the Health and Retirement Study, this research investigates whether an adult child substitutes financial transfers to an elderly parent for time transfers as the cost of his or her time increases. The author develops and estimates a model of the effect of a child's wage rate on time and money transferred to an elderly parent. She then calculates a wage elasticity and studies how this varies with the existence of substitutes such as siblings and a spouse, and how this varies by sex of the child. The results show that an adult child will substitute money for time. Furthermore, the author finds that for a male child, a spouse is a substitute helper for elderly parents and that for a female child a spouse is a complementary helper while siblings serve as substitutes.

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File URL: http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/drafts/2008/DRU2542.pdf
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Paper provided by RAND Corporation Publications Department in its series Working Papers with number 01-05.

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Length: 32 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2001
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ran:wpaper:01-05
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  1. Kathleen McGarry & Robert F. Schoeni, 1995. "Transfer Behavior within the Family: Results from the Asset and Health Dynamics Survey," NBER Working Papers 5099, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Bernheim, B Douglas & Shleifer, Andrei & Summers, Lawrence H, 1985. "The Strategic Bequest Motive," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(6), pages 1045-76, December.
  3. Tennille J. Checkovich & Steven Stern, 2002. "Shared Caregiving Responsibilities of Adult Siblings with Elderly Parents," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 37(3), pages 441-478.
  4. Hiedemann, Bridget & Stern, Steven, 1999. "Strategic play among family members when making long-term care decisions," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 29-57, September.
  5. Cox, Donald & Rank, Mark R, 1992. "Inter-vivos Transfers and Intergenerational Exchange," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(2), pages 305-14, May.
  6. Joseph G. Altonji & Fumio Hayashi & Laurence Kotlikoff, 1995. "Parental Altruism and Inter Vivos Transfers: Theory and Evidence," NBER Working Papers 5378, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Joseph G. Altonji & Hidehiko Ichimura & Taisuke Otsu, 2008. "Estimating Derivatives in Nonseparable Models with Limited Dependent Variables," NBER Working Papers 14161, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Lee Lillard & Robert Willis, 1997. "Motives for interqenerational transfers: Evidence from Malaysia," Demography, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 115-134, February.
  9. Robert Schoeni, 1998. "Reassessing the decline in parent-child old-age coresidence during the twentieth century," Demography, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 307-313, August.
  10. Cox, Donald, 1987. "Motives for Private Income Transfers," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(3), pages 508-46, June.
  11. Heckman, James J, 1990. "Varieties of Selection Bias," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 313-18, May.
  12. Schoeni, Robert F, 1997. "Private Interhousehold Transfers of Money and Time: New Empirical Evidence," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 43(4), pages 423-48, December.
  13. Robert F. Schoeni & Vicki A. Freedman & Robert B. Wallace, 2000. "Persistent, Consistent, and Widespread?: Another Look at Recent Trends in Old-Age Disability," Working Papers 00-13, RAND Corporation Publications Department.
  14. Kooreman, P. & Kapteyn, A.J., 1984. "A disaggregated analysis of the allocation of time within the household," Research Memorandum FEW 153, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
  15. Kenneth Couch & Mary Daly & Douglas Wolf, 1999. "Time? money? both? the allocation of resources to older Parents," Demography, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 219-232, May.
  16. Laurence J. Kotlikoff & John Morris, 1988. "Why Don't the Elderly Live With Their Children? A New Look," NBER Working Papers 2734, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Cox, Donald & Eser, Zekeriya & Jimenez, Emmanuel, 1998. "Motives for private transfers over the life cycle: An analytical framework and evidence for Peru," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(1), pages 57-80, February.
  18. Wales, Terence J & Woodland, A D, 1977. "Estimation of the Allocation of Time for Work, Leisure, and Housework," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 45(1), pages 115-32, January.
  19. Steven Stern, 1995. "Estimating Family Long-Term Care Decisions in the Presence of Endogenous Child Characteristics," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 30(3), pages 551-580.
  20. Andreoni, James, 1989. "Giving with Impure Altruism: Applications to Charity and Ricardian Equivalence," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(6), pages 1447-58, December.
  21. Altonji, Joseph G & Hayashi, Fumio & Kotlikoff, Laurence J, 1992. "Is the Extended Family Altruistically Linked? Direct Tests Using Micro Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(5), pages 1177-98, December.
  22. Schoeni, R-F, 1996. "Does Aid to Families with Dependent Children Displace Familial Assistance?," Papers 96-12, RAND - Labor and Population Program.
  23. Joseph G. Altonji & Fumio Hayashi & Laurence Kotlikoff, . "The Effects of Income and Wealth on Time and MOney Transfers Between Parents and Children," IPR working papers 96-5, Institute for Policy Resarch at Northwestern University.
  24. Hurd, Michael D, 1990. "Research on the Elderly: Economic Status, Retirement, and Consumption and Saving," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 28(2), pages 565-637, June.
  25. Gary S. Becker, 1974. "A Theory of Social Interactions," NBER Working Papers 0042, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  26. Pezzin, Liliana E & Schone, Barbara Steinberg, 1997. "The Allocation of Resources in Intergenerational Households: Adult Children and Their Elderly Parents," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(2), pages 460-64, May.
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