Exposure to pesticides, ill-health and averting behaviour: Costs and determining the relationships
Farmers\' exposure to pesticides is high in developing countries. As a result they suffer from ill-health, both short and long term. Deaths are not uncommon. The paper examines the cause of this high exposure by estimating farmers’ expenditure on precautions taken using the avertive behaviour approach. The data show that the expenditures on defensive behaviour are low. The paper then uses tobit regression analysis to determine factors that influence defensive behaviour. The results are useful, not only for Sri Lanka, but for many countries in South Asia, Africa and Latin America in reducing the current high levels of direct exposure to pesticides among farmers and farm workers using hand sprayers. Farmers\' exposure to pesticides is a major occupational health hazard in these countries.
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- Wilson, Clevo & Tisdell, Clem, 2001.
"Why farmers continue to use pesticides despite environmental, health and sustainability costs,"
Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 449-462, December.
- Wilson, Clevo & Tisdell, Clement A., 2000. "Why farmers continue to use pesticides despite environmental health and sustainability costs," Economics, Ecology and Environment Working Papers 48363, University of Queensland, School of Economics.
- Antle, John M. & Cole, Donald C. & Crissman, Charles C., 1998. "Further evidence on pesticides, productivity and farmer health: Potato production in Ecuador," Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 18(2), March.
- Antle, John M. & Cole, Donald C. & Crissman, Charles C., 1998. "Further evidence on pesticides, productivity and farmer health: potato production in Ecuador," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 18(2), pages 199-207, March.
- Maumbe, Blessing M. & Swinton, Scott M., 2003. "Hidden health costs of pesticide use in Zimbabwe's smallholder cotton growers," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 57(9), pages 1559-1571, November.
- Amemiya, Takeshi, 1984. "Tobit models: A survey," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1-2), pages 3-61. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
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