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The Structure of Wages in India, 1983-1999

  • Puja Vasudeva Dutta

    ()

    (National Council of Applied Economic Research, New Delhi)

This paper examines the structure of wages for adult male workers within a dual labour market framework using micro survey data for three years spanning almost two decades. Augmented Mincerian wage equations are estimated for different types of workers – those with regular wage or salaried jobs and those with casual or contractual jobs - using a set of human capital measures and a variety of worker, industry and state characteristics after correcting for potential selection bias. This paper finds that the returns to education and experience are significantly different for these two types of workers consistent with the notion of segmented labour markets - while casual workers face at best flat returns the returns for regular workers are positive and rising in education level. There is some evidence of significant changes in the returns to education for regular workers over time. The widening of the gap between graduate and primary education and the rise in wage inequality could possibly be a consequence of trade liberalisation and other reforms pursued during the 1990s.

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File URL: http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp25.pdf
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Paper provided by Department of Economics, University of Sussex in its series Working Paper Series with number 25.

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Length: 38 pages
Date of creation: Jul 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:pru:wpaper:25
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  8. Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 1998. "Does the labour market explain lower female schooling in India?," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(1), pages 39-65.
  9. Krueger, Alan B & Summers, Lawrence H, 1988. "Efficiency Wages and the Inter-industry Wage Structure," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(2), pages 259-93, March.
  10. Glewwe, Paul, 1996. "The relevance of standard estimates of rates of return to schooling for education policy: A critical assessment," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 267-290, December.
  11. Lee, Lung-Fei, 1983. "Generalized Econometric Models with Selectivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(2), pages 507-12, March.
  12. Heckman, James J, 1979. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
  13. Harrison, Ann & Hanson, Gordon, 1999. "Who gains from trade reform? Some remaining puzzles," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 125-154, June.
  14. Geeta Gandhi Kingdon & Jeemol Unni, 2001. "Education and Women's Labour Market Outcomes in India," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(2), pages 173-195.
  15. Self, Sharmistha & Grabowski, Richard, 2004. "Does education at all levels cause growth? India, a case study," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 47-55, February.
  16. Appleton, Simon & Hoddinott, John & Knight, John, 1996. "Primary Education as an Input into Post-primary Education: A Neglected Benefit," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 58(1), pages 211-19, February.
  17. Behrman, Jere R & Birdsall, Nancy, 1983. "The Quality of Schooling: Quantity Alone is Misleading," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(5), pages 928-46, December.
  18. Banerjee, Biswajit & Knight, J. B., 1985. "Caste discrimination in the Indian urban labour market," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 277-307, April.
  19. Glewwe, P., 1991. "Schooling, skills, and the returns to government investment in education: an exloration using data from Ghana," Papers 76, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
  20. Murphy, Kevin M & Welch, Finis, 1990. "Empirical Age-Earnings Profiles," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 8(2), pages 202-29, April.
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  23. Wood, Adrian, 1997. "Openness and Wage Inequality in Developing Countries: The Latin American Challenge to East Asian Conventional Wisdom," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 11(1), pages 33-57, January.
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  25. Siphambe, Happy Kufigwa, 2000. "Rates of return to education in Botswana," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 291-300, June.
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