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Multidimensional Inequality: An Empirial Application to Brazil

Author

Listed:
  • Patricia Justino

    () (Poverty Research Unit at Sussex, Department of Economics, University of Sussex)

  • Julie Litchfield

    () (Poverty Research Unit at Sussex, Department of Economics, Universtity of Sussex)

  • Yoko Niimi

    () (Poverty Research Unit at Sussex)

Abstract

This paper illustrates two empirical approaches to the measurement of multidimensional inequality. The first approach is based on the analysis of the independent distribution of monetary and nonmonetary welfare attributes. The second approach considers pair-wise joint distributions of those attributes, hence allowing for differences in the various distributions, as well as possible correlations between the attributes. The analysis is based on household survey data from Brazil for 1996. We focus on inequalities in income, education, health and political participation outcomes. We calculate the extent of vertical and horizontal monetary and non-monetary inequalities, examine the determinants of both types of inequality and analyse their impact on household welfare. Our results show that economic analyses based solely on the distribution of income variables will not portray fully the degree of socio-economic and political inequalities in Brazil. In fact, traditional analysis of inequality may overestimate the extent of inequality, as education and other non-monetary welfare attributes appear to be more equally distributed in Brazil than income.

Suggested Citation

  • Patricia Justino & Julie Litchfield & Yoko Niimi, 2004. "Multidimensional Inequality: An Empirial Application to Brazil," PRUS Working Papers 24, Poverty Research Unit at Sussex, University of Sussex.
  • Handle: RePEc:pru:wpaper:24
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    File URL: http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp24.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Rodriguez Takeuchi Laura, 2015. "Intra-Household Inequalities in Child Rights and Well-Being: A Barrier to Progress?," WIDER Working Paper Series 012, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    2. Abul Naga, Ramses H. & Shen, Yajie & Yoo, Hong Il, 2016. "Joint hypothesis tests for multidimensional inequality indices," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 141(C), pages 138-142.
    3. Maria Ana Lugo & Esfandiar Maasoumi, 2008. "Multidimensional Poverty Measures from an Information Theory Perspective," Working Papers 85, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    4. Andrés Rodríguez-Pose & Vassilis Tselios, 2009. "Mapping Regional Personal Income Distribution in Western Europe: Income Per Capita and Inequality," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 59(1), pages 41-70, January.
    5. Paola Salardi, 2008. "Brazilian Poverty Between And Within Groups: Decomposition By Geographical, Group-Specific Poverty Lines," PRUS Working Papers 41, Poverty Research Unit at Sussex, University of Sussex.
    6. Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés & Hardy, Daniel, 2015. "Addressing poverty and inequality in the rural economy from a global perspective," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 63257, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    7. Abul Naga, Ramses H., 2010. "Statistical inference for multidimensional inequality indices," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 107(1), pages 49-51, April.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    multidimensional inequality; education inequalities; health inequalities; political inequalities; household data; Brazil;

    JEL classification:

    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • I19 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Other
    • I29 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Other
    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • O54 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Latin America; Caribbean

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