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Political Origins of Financial Structure

  • Sambit Bhattacharyya

There is a growing policy interest in the role of financial structure in promoting development.� However, very little is known about how different financial structures emerge and evolve.� In this paper we empirically assess the political origins of financial structure.� Using difference-indifference estimaton and annual data, we study the effects of democratization on financial structure in a sample of 96 countries covering the period 1970 to 2005.� Democratization here corresponds to the event of becoming a democracy.� We find that democratization leads to a more market-based financial system.� Democractic change could also be incremental rather than a one off.� To identify the causal effect of incremental democratic change on financial structure we estimate a separate model and find that democracy matters.� We also find that countries with substantial democratic capital are more likely to have a market-based financial structure.� Our main results are robust to a variety of controls, instrumental variable estimation using commodity price and rainfall as instruments, Arellano-Bond GMM estimation, alternative measures of democracy and financial structure, and across different samples.

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Paper provided by University of Oxford, Department of Economics in its series Economics Series Working Papers with number WPS/2011-20.

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Date of creation: 01 Oct 2011
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Handle: RePEc:oxf:wpaper:wps/2011-20
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  1. Luigi Guiso & Paola Sapienza & Luigi Zingales, 2000. "The Role of Social Capital in Financial Development," CRSP working papers 511, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
  2. Sambit Bhattacharyya & Roland Hodler, 2008. "Natural Resources, Democracy and Corruption," OxCarre Working Papers 020, Oxford Centre for the Analysis of Resource Rich Economies, University of Oxford.
  3. Levine, Ross, 2002. "Bank-Based or Market-Based Financial Systems: Which Is Better?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 398-428, October.
  4. Chakraborty, Shankha & Ray, Tridip, 2007. "The development and structure of financial systems," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 31(9), pages 2920-2956, September.
  5. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521117562 is not listed on IDEAS
  6. Pagano, Marco & Volpin, Paolo, 2002. "The Political Economy of Finance," CEPR Discussion Papers 3231, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1998. "Law and Finance," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(6), pages 1113-1155, December.
  8. Beck, Thorsten & Levine, Ross, 2002. "Industry growth and capital allocation:*1: does having a market- or bank-based system matter?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 147-180, May.
  9. Sambit Bhattacharyya & Roland Hodler, 2010. "Do Natural Resource Revenues Hinder Financial Development?� The Role of Political Institutions," Economics Series Working Papers CSAE WPS/2010-40, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  10. Sambit Bhattacharyya, 2008. "Unbundled Institutions, Human Capital and Growth," Departmental Working Papers 2008-14, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
  11. Barro, Robert J & Lee, Jong-Wha, 2001. "International Data on Educational Attainment: Updates and Implications," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 53(3), pages 541-63, July.
  12. Thorsten Beck & Ross Levine, 2004. "Legal Institutions and Financial Development," NBER Working Papers 10417, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Torsten Persson & Guido Tabellini, 2006. "Democracy and Development: The Devil in the Details," Levine's Bibliography 122247000000001139, UCLA Department of Economics.
  14. Sambit Bhattacharyya & Paul Collier, 2011. "Public Capital in Resource Rich Economies: Is there a Curse?," CSAE Working Paper Series 2011-14, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  15. Asli Demirgü�-Kunt & Erik Feyen & Ross Levine, 2013. "The Evolving Importance of Banks and Securities Markets," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 27(3), pages 476-490.
  16. John H. Boyd & Bruce D. Smith, 1995. "The evolution of debt and equity markets in economic development," Working Papers 542, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  17. Hausman, Jerry & Stock, James H. & Yogo, Motohiro, 2005. "Asymptotic properties of the Hahn-Hausman test for weak-instruments," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 89(3), pages 333-342, December.
  18. Yang, Benhua, 2011. "Political democratization, economic liberalization, and growth volatility," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 245-259, June.
  19. Francesco Giavazzi & Guido Tabellini, 2004. "Economic and Political Liberalizations," CESifo Working Paper Series 1249, CESifo Group Munich.
  20. Hamilton, Kirk & Clemens, Michael, 1999. "Genuine Savings Rates in Developing Countries," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 13(2), pages 333-56, May.
  21. Daron Acemoglu & Simon Johnson, 2003. "Unbundling Institutions," NBER Working Papers 9934, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  22. Shankha Chakraborty & Tridip Ray, 2003. "Bank-based versus Market-based Financial Systems: A Growth-theoretic Analysis," University of Oregon Economics Department Working Papers 2003-6, University of Oregon Economics Department, revised 01 Feb 2002.
  23. Wacziarg, Romain & Welch, Karen Horn, 2003. "Trade Liberalization and Growth: New Evidence," Research Papers 1826, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
  24. Rajan, Raghuram G. & Zingales, Luigi, 2003. "The great reversals: the politics of financial development in the twentieth century," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 5-50, July.
  25. Collier, Paul & Hoeffler, Anke, 2009. "Testing the neocon agenda: Democracy in resource-rich societies," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 293-308, April.
  26. Levine, Ross, 1996. "Financial development and economic growth : views and agenda," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1678, The World Bank.
  27. Thorsten Beck & Asli Demirguc-Kunt & Ross Levine, 2002. "Law, Endowment, and Finance," NBER Working Papers 9089, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  28. Solomon Tadesse, 2001. "Financial Architecture and Economic Performance: International Evidence," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 449, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
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