British and European Industrialization
Modern economic growth â€“ the simultaneous increase in population and average incomes â€“ has been capitalismâ€™s greatest achievement. This growth first became apparent in Britain in the nineteenth century and then spread to continental Europe (and the United States). The process is usually associated with the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the spread of British-type industrialization to follower economies. This chapter reviews the emergence of modern economic growth and suggests that the usual view is misleading in that it focuses is too limited both in time and in the technological change it usually emphasizes. On one hand, the of famous industries â€“ textiles, iron and engineering â€“ contributed only modestly to growth because they constituted only a small proportion of the economy. Furthermore, the emergence of growth was much more gradual than traditionally understood. In new views, Britain was already a substantially industrialized economy with relatively high wages before the early eighteenth century. The origin of growth appear to lie in the ability of an economy in which both product and factor markets were well developed in both the rural and urban areas to partially overcome Malthusian constraints. The spread of growth to continental Europe is often seen as the spread of new technology of the British Industrial Revolution. This too seems somewhat misleading. The industries were small relative to the entire economies and their success depended on particular conditions. Furthermore, just as Britainâ€™s early success rested importantly on productive capitalist agriculture, the emergence of increased incomes on the continent depended on agricultural reforms that increases in its productivity.
|Date of creation:||26 Feb 2013|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.economics.ox.ac.uk/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Ronald Findlay & Kevin H. O'Rourke, 2007.
"Power and Plenty: Trade, War and the World Economy in the Second Millennium (Preface),"
The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series
- Ronald Findlay & Kevin H. O'Rourke, 2007. "Power and Plenty: Trade, War and the World Economy in the Second Millennium (Preface)," Trinity Economics Papers tep0107, Trinity College Dublin, Department of Economics.
- Feinstein, Charles H., 1998. "Pessimism Perpetuated: Real Wages and the Standard of Living in Britain during and after the Industrial Revolution," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 58(03), pages 625-658, September.
- Cohen, Jon S. & Weitzman, Martin L., 1975. "A Marxian model of enclosures," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(4), pages 287-336, November.
- Nicholas Crafts, 2004.
"Steam as a general purpose technology: A growth accounting perspective,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(495), pages 338-351, 04.
- Nicholas Crafts, 2003. "Steam as a general purpose technology: a growth accounting perspective," Economic History Working Papers 22354, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Economic History.
- Gregory Clark, 2005.
"The Condition of the Working Class in England, 1209-2004,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 113(6), pages 1307-1340, December.
- Gregory Clark, 2005. "The Condition of the Working-Class in England, 1209-2004," Working Papers 539, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
- N. F. R. Crafts & C. K. Harley, 1992. "Output growth and the British industrial revolution: a restatement of the Crafts-Harley view," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 45(4), pages 703-730, November.
- Fremdling, Rainer, 1977. "Railroads and German Economic Growth: A Leading Sector Analysis with a Comparison to the United States and Great Britain," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 37(03), pages 583-604, September.
- Tine De Moor & Jan Luiten Van Zanden, 2010. "Girl power: the European marriage pattern and labour markets in the North Sea region in the late medieval and early modern period -super-1," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 63(1), pages 1-33, 02.
- Crafts, N. F. R., 1984. "Economic Growth in France and Britain, 1830–1910: A Review of the Evidence," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 44(01), pages 49-67, March.
- Allen, Robert C., 1992. "Enclosure and the Yeoman: The Agricultural Development of the South Midlands 1450-1850," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198282969, March.
- repec:cup:cbooks:9780521708388 is not listed on IDEAS
- Woltjer, P. & Smits, Jan-Pieter & Frankema, Ewout, 2010. "Comparing Productivity in the Netherlands, France, UK and US, ca. 1910:A new PPP benchmark and its implications for changing economic leadership," GGDC Research Memorandum GD-113, Groningen Growth and Development Centre, University of Groningen.
- N. F. R. Crafts & C. Knick Harley, 2002.
"Precocious British Industrialization: A General Equilibrium Perspective,"
UWO Department of Economics Working Papers
200213, University of Western Ontario, Department of Economics.
- Nicholas Crafts & C. Knick Harley, 2002. "Precocious British industrialization: a general equilibrium perspective," Economic History Working Papers 22368, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Economic History.
- Harley, C. Knick, 1982. "British Industrialization Before 1841: Evidence of Slower Growth During the Industrial Revolution," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 42(02), pages 267-289, June.
- van Bavel, Bas, 2010. "Manors and Markets: Economy and Society in the Low Countries 500-1600," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199278664, March.
- Grantham, George, 1989. "Agricultural Supply During the Industrial Revolution: French Evidence and European Implications," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 49(01), pages 43-72, March.
- Crafts, Nicholas, 2004.
"Productivity Growth in the Industrial Revolution: A New Growth Accounting Perspective,"
The Journal of Economic History,
Cambridge University Press, vol. 64(02), pages 521-535, June.
- Nicholas Crafts, 2002. "Productivity growth in the Industrial Revolution: a new growth accounting perspective," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Nov.
- C. Knick Harley, 1998. "Cotton Textile Prices and the Industrial Revolution," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 51(1), pages 49-83, 02.
- Hoffman, Philip T. & Postel-Vinay, Gilles & Rosenthal, Jean-Laurent, 2001. "Priceless Markets," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 1, number 9780226348018, March.
- Crafts, Nicholas & Mills, Terence C., 2009. "From Malthus to Solow: How did the Malthusian economy really evolve?," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 68-93, March.
- Fremdling, Rainer, 2000. "Transfer patterns of British technology to the Continent: The case of the iron industry," European Review of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 4(02), pages 195-222, August.
- repec:cup:cbooks:9780521248969 is not listed on IDEAS
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:oxf:wpaper:number-111. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Caroline Wise)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.