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Business Cycle Asymmetries: Characterisation and Testing based on Markov-Switching Autoregressions

  • Hans-Martin Krolzig
  • Michael Clements

We propose testing for business cycle first-moment asymmetries in Markov-switching autoregressive (MS-AR) models. We derive the parametric restrictions on MS-AR models that rule out types of asymmetries such as deepness, steepness, and sharpness, and set out a testing procedure based on Wald statistics which have standard asymptotics. For a two-regime model, such as that popularised by Hamilton (1989), we show that deepness implies sharpness (and vice versa) while the process is always non-step. We illustrated with two and three-state MS-AR models of US GNP growth, and models of US investment and consumption growth. Our findings are compared with those obtained from standard non-parametric tests, which are unable to distinguish between first-moment asymmetries and heteroscedasticity.

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File URL: http://www.nuff.ox.ac.uk/economics/papers/2000/w32/mchkasy5.pdf
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Paper provided by University of Oxford, Department of Economics in its series Economics Series Working Papers with number 2000-W32.

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Date of creation: 01 Oct 2000
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Handle: RePEc:oxf:wpaper:2000-w32
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  1. Krolzig, Hans-Martin & Sensier, Marianne, 2000. "A Disaggregated Markov-Switching Model of the Business Cycle in UK Manufacturing," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 68(4), pages 442-60, Special I.
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  4. Falk, Barry L., 1986. "Further Evidence on the Asymmetric Behavior of Economic Time Series over the Business Cycle," Staff General Research Papers 11097, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
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  9. Gordon, Stephen, 1997. "Stochastic Trends, Deterministic Trends, and Business Cycle Turning Points," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(4), pages 411-34, July-Aug..
  10. Francis X. Diebold & Glenn Rudebusch & Daniel Sichel, 1993. "Further Evidence on Business-Cycle Duration Dependence," NBER Chapters, in: Business Cycles, Indicators and Forecasting, pages 255-284 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. McQueen, Grant & Thorley, Steven, 1993. "Asymmetric business cycle turning points," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 341-362, June.
  12. Hamilton, James D, 1989. "A New Approach to the Economic Analysis of Nonstationary Time Series and the Business Cycle," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(2), pages 357-84, March.
  13. Pesaran, H.M. & Potter, S.M., 1995. "A Floor and Ceiling Model of U.S. Output," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9407, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  14. Gregory D. Hess & Shigeru Iwata, 1997. "Asymmetric persistence in GDP? A deeper look at depth," Research Working Paper 97-02, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
  15. Michael P. Clements & Hans-Martin Krolzig, 1998. "A comparison of the forecast performance of Markov-switching and threshold autoregressive models of US GNP," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 1(Conferenc), pages C47-C75.
  16. Clements, M.P. & Smith J., 1998. "Evaluating The Forecast of Densities of Linear and Non-Linear Models: Applications to Output Growth and Unemployment," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 509, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  17. Sichel, Daniel E, 1989. "Are Business Cycles Asymmetric? A Correction," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(5), pages 1255-60, October.
  18. Terasvirta, T & Anderson, H M, 1992. "Characterizing Nonlinearities in Business Cycles Using Smooth Transition Autoregressive Models," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 7(S), pages S119-36, Suppl. De.
  19. Gregory D. Hess & Shigeru Iwata, 1995. "Measuring business cycle features," Research Working Paper 95-10, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
  20. Speight, A E H & McMillan, D G, 1998. "Testing for Asymmetries in UK Macroeconomic Time Series," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 45(2), pages 158-70, May.
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  22. Beaudry, Paul & Koop, Gary, 1993. "Do recessions permanently change output?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 149-163, April.
  23. Boldin Michael D., 1996. "A Check on the Robustness of Hamilton's Markov Switching Model Approach to the Economic Analysis of the Business Cycle," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 1(1), pages 1-14, April.
  24. Neftci, Salih N, 1984. "Are Economic Time Series Asymmetric over the Business Cycle?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 92(2), pages 307-28, April.
  25. Ravn, Morten O. & Sola, Martin, 1995. "Stylized facts and regime changes: Are prices procyclical?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 497-526, December.
  26. Hamilton, James D & Gang, Lin, 1996. "Stock Market Volatility and the Business Cycle," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(5), pages 573-93, Sept.-Oct.
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