IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nus/nusewp/wp0706.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Effect of Private Tutoring Expenditures on Academic Performance: Evidence from a Nonparametric Bounding Method

Author

Listed:
  • Changhui Kang

    () (Department of Economics, National University of Singapore)

Abstract

The causal relationship between educational investments and student outcomes continues to attract attention. The majority of studies have examined the effectiveness of public school expenditures or private school attendance on student outcomes. This paper contributes to the literature by examining the effectiveness of an unexplored dimension of educational inputs—private tutoring expenditures of South Korean parents. In the face of difficulties in causal estimation, the paper employs a nonparametric bounding method that is recently gaining popularity. With the method we show that the true effect of private tutoring remains at most modest. The tightest bounds suggest that a 10 percent increase in expenditure raises a student's test score by 0.764 percent at the largest. Such a modest effect remains similar across male and female students, and across students of different ability levels.

Suggested Citation

  • Changhui Kang, 2007. "The Effect of Private Tutoring Expenditures on Academic Performance: Evidence from a Nonparametric Bounding Method," Departmental Working Papers wp0706, National University of Singapore, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:nus:nusewp:wp0706
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.fas.nus.edu.sg/ecs/pub/wp/wp0706.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Puga, Diego & Trefler, Daniel, 2010. "Wake up and smell the ginseng: International trade and the rise of incremental innovation in low-wage countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(1), pages 64-76, January.
    2. repec:ner:ucllon:http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/17678/ is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Dalia Marin & Thierry Verdier, 2003. "Globalization and the New Enterprise," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 1(2-3), pages 337-344, 04/05.
    4. Alfred D. Chandler, 1969. "Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the American Industrial Enterprise," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262530090, March.
    5. Aghion, Philippe & Tirole, Jean, 1997. "Formal and Real Authority in Organizations," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(1), pages 1-29, February.
    6. Piercarlo Zanchettin, 2006. "Differentiated Duopoly with Asymmetric Costs," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(4), pages 999-1015, December.
    7. Jansen, Thijs & van Lier, Arie & van Witteloostuijn, Arjen, 2007. "A note on strategic delegation: The market share case," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 531-539, June.
    8. Fershtman, Chaim & Judd, Kenneth L, 1987. "Equilibrium Incentives in Oligopoly," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(5), pages 927-940, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Asmaa Elbadawy, 2013. "The Effect of Tutoring on Secondary Streaming in Egypt," Working Papers 769, Economic Research Forum, revised Sep 2013.
    2. Álvaro Choi de Mendizábal & Jorge Calero Martínez & Oriol Escardíbul Ferrà, 2011. "Hell to touch the sky? Private tutoring and academic achievement in Korea," Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación volume 6,in: Antonio Caparrós Ruiz (ed.), Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación 6, edition 1, volume 6, chapter 7, pages 118-134 Asociación de Economía de la Educación.
    3. ZHAO, Guochang, 2015. "Can money ‘buy’ schooling achievement? Evidence from 19 Chinese cities," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 83-104.
    4. Deockhyun Ryu & Changhui Kang, 2013. "Do Private Tutoring Expenditures Raise Academic Performance? Evidence from Middle School Students in South Korea," Asian Economic Journal, East Asian Economic Association, vol. 27(1), pages 59-83, March.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Private Tutoring; Test Scores; Nonparametric Bounds; South Korea;

    JEL classification:

    • I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
    • C30 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - General

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nus:nusewp:wp0706. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/denussg.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.