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"Because they are too menny..." Children, Mothers and Fertility Decline: The Evidence from Working-Class Autobiographies of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

  • Jane Humphries

    (University of Oxford)

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    Accounts of the British fertility decline have turned on the rise of the male breadwinner family, which by placing the responsibility for supporting women and children on men converted them to a preference for smaller families. This paper uses working-class autobiography of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to develop understanding of sources of income and patterns of dependency and to illuminate the motives towards smaller families. Even before 1800 fathers’ duties were to work hard to support their families, but male responsibilities did not extend to stretching male wages to cover the variable demands of smaller or larger families. Mothers often sacrificed their own diets and wellbeing to stretch resources. Yet for them children were supports as well as burdens. Sons could earn more than their mothers and surrendered their earnings willingly. Through the family, resources were transferred from older working children to younger dependent siblings. Children’s diets and schooling were eroded by the appearance of new babies and their entry into early work prompted by the burden of dependency. Their experiences as family members and child workers were recycled with a lag into recognition of the costs of larger families and slowly and imperfectly into agreement about the need for fertility control.

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    File URL: http://www.economics.ox.ac.uk/materials/papers/2238/64humphries.pdf
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    Paper provided by Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford in its series Oxford University Economic and Social History Series with number _064.

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    Length: 48 pages
    Date of creation: 17 Nov 2006
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:nuf:esohwp:_064
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.nuff.ox.ac.uk/economics/

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    1. Ame Bergés & Valpy Fitzgerald, 2004. "The Standard of Living in Latin America During the Twentieth Century," Economics Series Working Papers 2004-W54, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    2. Elaine Tan, 2002. ""The Bull is Half the Herd": Property Rights and Enclosures in England, 1750-1850," Oxford University Economic and Social History Series _046, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
    3. Pablo Astorga, Ame R. Berges and Valpy FitzGerald, . "The Standard of Living in Latin America During the Twentieth Century," QEH Working Papers qehwps103, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
    4. Avner Offer, 2000. "Economic Welfare Measurements and Human Well-Being," Oxford University Economic and Social History Series _034, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
    5. Richard Steckel, 2005. "Fluctuations in a Dreadful Childhood: Synthetic longitudinal height data, relative prices, and weather in the short-term health of american slaves," Oxford University Economic and Social History Series _058, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
    6. Valpy Fitzgerald & Pablo Astorga, 2003. "Productivity Growth in Latin America during the Twentieth Century," Economics Series Working Papers 2003-W52, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
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