Private schooling in rural India
This paper presents a brief review of alternative explanations and views on public versus private schooling in India. The data for this study has been obtained mainly from a sample survey of households conducted by the National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER) in 1994 in rural India, supplemented with the data available from the All-India Educational Surveys conducted by the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT). The paper analyses several dimensions of private education - the relative size of the private sector, its growth, attributes of children going to private schools, and demand for private education in rural India. A distinction is made between the government-aided private schools and the unaided private schools, with focus on the unaided private school system as the private system of education in India. On the whole, in rural and urban areas together, the relative size of both the government and the government-aided sectors seem to be shrinking and that of the private (unaided) sector is increasing, though private unaided sector is still a tiny sector with less than 9 per cent of the total nrolments at primary level and around 11 per cent at upper primary level. The demand function that has been estimated shows, among other things, that households with higher income demand private education for their children; that the probability of enrolling in a private school is less if the child belongs to Scheduled CasteITribe, than if helshe belongs to other (forward) caste; that ducation and occupation of father1 parent play a role, as do gender of the child (demand for private education for a male child in preference to female) and hislher age (younger the age, higher is the demand for private education).
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