IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Sticky Prices, Competition and the Phillips Curve

This study analyzes how competition affects price stickiness at the micro level. On the theoretical side, I develop what I call a micro Phillips curve, i.e. a product-specific relation between inflation and economic activity conditional on inflation expectations. I find two opposing effects of competition on the slope of the micro Phillips curve. On the one hand, stronger competition leads to a higher frequency of price revaluations, implying a steeper slope. On the other hand, the stronger competition is, the less firms can transmit changes in economic activity into price changes, implying a flatter slope. Using unique product-level manufacturing panel data, I find that the latter effect clearly dominates and plays an important role in explaining price stickiness. The effect of a marginal increase in economic activity on the likelihood of a price increase is between 63% and 85% lower for products, that face very strong competition, compared to products, that face very weak competition. In line with the theory, prices of products, that face very strong competition, are also less likely to decrease in response to marginal decreases in economic activity. Moreover, it heavily depends on the degree of competition that a product faces whether, and to what extent, the micro Phillips curve is non-linear. The stronger the competition the weaker will be the non-linearity of the micro Phillips curve. My findings imply that effective business cycle policy necessitates good competition policy. Reforms which strengthen the competition in an economy will make stimulus or stabilization policy more effective. Furthermore, the results imply that stimulus or stabilization measures, that target specifically high competition firms or sectors, may be more effective than programs, that follow an indiscriminate all-round principle.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.kof.ethz.ch/publications/science/pdf/wp_294.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich in its series KOF Working papers with number 11-294.

as
in new window

Length: 51 pages
Date of creation: Jan 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:kof:wpskof:11-294
Contact details of provider: Postal:
Leonhardstrasse 21, CH-8092 Zürich

Phone: +41 44 632 42 39
Fax: +41 44 632 12 18
Web page: http://www.kof.ethz.ch
Email:


More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Bartosz Mackowiak & Frank Smets, 2008. "On implications of micro price data for macro models," Conference Series ; [Proceedings], Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, vol. 53.
  2. Peter J. Klenow & Jonathan L. Willis, 2006. "Real rigidities and nominal price changes," Research Working Paper RWP 06-03, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
  3. Philip Vermeulen & Daniel Dias & Maarten Dossche & Erwan Gautier & Ignacio Hernando & Roberto Sabbatini & Harald Stahl, 2007. "Price setting in the euro area : some stylised facts from individual producer price data," Working Paper Research 111, National Bank of Belgium.
  4. Miles S. Kimball, 1995. "The Quantitative Analytics of the Basic Neomonetarist Model," NBER Working Papers 5046, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Peter J. Klenow & Oleksiy Kryvtsov, 2005. "State-Dependent or Time-Dependent Pricing: Does It Matter for Recent U.S. Inflation?," Staff Working Papers 05-4, Bank of Canada.
  6. Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1975. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 64, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  7. Giuseppe Bertola & Aurelijus Dabušinskas & Marco Hoeberichts & Mario Izquierdo & Claudia Kwapil & Jérémi Montornès & Daniel Radowski, 2010. "Price, wage and employment response to shocks : evidence from the WDN survey," Bank of Estonia Working Papers wp2010-07, Bank of Estonia, revised 26 May 2010.
  8. Laurence Ball & David Romer, 1990. "Real Rigidities and the Non-Neutrality of Money," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 57(2), pages 183-203.
  9. Fabiani, S. & Druant, M. & Hernando, I. & Kwapil, C. & Landau, B. & Loupias, C. & Martins, F. & Mathä, T. & Sabbatini, R. & Stahl, H. & Stockman, A., 2005. "The Pricing Behaviour of Firms in the Euro Area: New Survey Evidence," Working papers 135, Banque de France.
  10. Natalie Chen & Jean Imbs & Andrew Scott, 2006. "The dynamics of trade and competition," Working Paper Research 91, National Bank of Belgium.
  11. Argia M. Sbordone, 2008. "Globalization and inflation dynamics: the impact of increased competition," Staff Reports 324, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  12. Geroski, P A, 1992. "Price Dynamics in UK Manufacturing: A Microeconomic View," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 59(236), pages 403-19, November.
  13. Auer, Raphael & Fischer, Andreas M., 2008. "The effect of trade with low-income countries on U.S. industry," Globalization and Monetary Policy Institute Working Paper 14, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
  14. Lein, Sarah M., 2010. "When do firms adjust prices? Evidence from micro panel data," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(6), pages 696-715, September.
  15. Eichenbaum, Martin & Fisher, Jonas D.M., 2007. "Estimating the frequency of price re-optimization in Calvo-style models," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(7), pages 2032-2047, October.
  16. Michael Graff & Jan-Egbert Sturm, 2010. "The Information Content of Capacity Utilisation Rates for Output Gap Estimates," CESifo Working Paper Series 3276, CESifo Group Munich.
  17. Silvia Fabiani & Martine Druant & Ignacio Hernando & Claudia Kwapil & Bettina Landau & Claire Loupias & Fernando Martins & Thomas Mathä & Roberto Sabbatini & Harald Stahl & Ad Stokman, 2006. "What Firms' Surveys Tell Us about Price-Setting Behavior in the Euro Area," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 2(3), September.
  18. Mark Bils & Peter J. Klenow, 2004. "Some Evidence on the Importance of Sticky Prices," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(5), pages 947-985, October.
  19. Levy, Daniel & Smets, Frank, 2010. "Price Setting and Price Adjustment in Some European Union Countries: Introduction to the Special Issue," MPRA Paper 27617, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  20. Luis J. Álvarez & Emmanuel Dhyne & Marco Hoeberichts & Claudia Kwapil & Hervé Le Bihan & Patrick Lünnemann & Fernando Martins & Roberto Sabbatini & Harald Stahl & Philip Vermeulen & Jouko Vilmunen, 2006. "Sticky Prices in the Euro Area: A Summary of New Micro-Evidence," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 4(2-3), pages 575-584, 04-05.
  21. John V. Duca & David D. VanHoose, 2000. "Has Greater Competition Restrained U.S. Inflation?," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 66(3), pages 729=741, January.
  22. Luis J. Álvarez & Pablo Burriel & Ignacio Hernando, 2010. "Price-setting behaviour in Spain: evidence from micro PPI data," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(2-3), pages 105-121.
  23. Eugenio Gaiotti, 2008. "Has globalisation changed the Phillips curve? Firm-level evidence on the effect of activity on prices," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 676, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  24. Fabrizio Coricelli & Roman Horváth, 2010. "Price setting and market structure: an empirical analysis of micro data in Slovakia," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(2-3), pages 209-233.
  25. David Romer, 1991. "Openness and Inflation: Theory and Evidence," NBER Working Papers 3936, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  26. Khan, Hashmat, 2005. "Price-setting behaviour, competition, and markup shocks in the new Keynesian model," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 87(3), pages 329-335, June.
  27. Jane Ihrig & Steven B. Kamin & Deborah Lindner & Jaime Marquez, 2010. "Some Simple Tests of the Globalization and Inflation Hypothesis," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(3), pages 343-375, Winter.
  28. Marco Hoeberichts & Ad Stokman, 2010. "Price setting behaviour in the Netherlands: results of a survey," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(2-3), pages 135-149.
  29. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
  30. Ai, Chunrong & Norton, Edward C., 2003. "Interaction terms in logit and probit models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 123-129, July.
  31. Guerrieri, Luca & Gust, Christopher & López-Salido, J David, 2009. "International Competition and Inflation: A New Keynesian Perspective," CEPR Discussion Papers 7561, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  32. Temple, Jonathan, 2002. "Openness, Inflation, and the Phillips Curve: A Puzzle," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(2), pages 450-68, May.
  33. Claudia Kwapil & Johann Scharler & Josef Baumgartner, 2010. "How are prices adjusted in response to shocks? Survey evidence from Austrian firms," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(2-3), pages 151-160.
  34. Boivin, Jean & Giannoni, Marc & Mihov, Ilian, 2007. "Sticky Prices and Monetary Policy: Evidence from Disaggregated US Data," CEPR Discussion Papers 6101, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  35. Hall, Simon & Walsh, Mark & Yates, Anthony, 2000. "Are UK Companies' Prices Sticky?," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 52(3), pages 425-46, July.
  36. Sarah M. Lein & Eva Köberl, 2009. "Capacity Utilisation, Constraints and Price Adjustments under the Microscope," KOF Working papers 09-239, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
  37. Julio J. Rotemberg, 1982. "Monopolistic Price Adjustment and Aggregate Output," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 49(4), pages 517-531.
  38. Elizabeth Caucutt & Mrinal Ghosh & Christina Kelton, 1999. "Durability Versus Concentration as an Explanation for Price Inflexibility," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 14(1), pages 27-50, February.
  39. Gordon, Robert J, 1996. "The Time-varying NAIRU and its Implications for Economic Policy," CEPR Discussion Papers 1492, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  40. repec:nbr:nberre:0126 is not listed on IDEAS
  41. Taylor, John B, 1980. "Aggregate Dynamics and Staggered Contracts," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 88(1), pages 1-23, February.
  42. Calvo, Guillermo A., 1983. "Staggered prices in a utility-maximizing framework," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 383-398, September.
  43. Frederic S. Mishkin, 2008. "Globalization, macroeconomic performance, and monetary policy," Proceedings, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  44. Dennis W. Carlton, 1986. "The Rigidity of Prices," NBER Working Papers 1813, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  45. Clark, Peter & Laxton, Douglas & Rose, David, 2001. "An Evaluation of Alternative Monetary Policy Rules in a Model with Capacity Constraints," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(1), pages 42-64, February.
  46. Stock, James H. & Watson, Mark W., 1999. "Forecasting inflation," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 293-335, October.
  47. Fabiani, Silvia & Loupias, Claire & Martins, Fernando & Sabbatini, Roberto (ed.), 2007. "Pricing Decisions in the Euro Area: How Firms Set Prices and Why," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195309287, December.
  48. Daniels, Joseph P. & VanHoose, David D., 2006. "Openness, the sacrifice ratio, and inflation: Is there a puzzle?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(8), pages 1336-1347, December.
  49. Emmanuel Dhyne & Luis J. Alvarez & Herve Le Bihan & Giovanni Veronese & Daniel Dias & Johannes Hoffmann & Nicole Jonker & Patrick Lunnemann & Fabio Rumler & Jouko Vilmunen, 2006. "Price Changes in the Euro Area and the United States: Some Facts from Individual Consumer Price Data," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 20(2), pages 171-192, Spring.
  50. Luis J. Álvarez & Ignacio Hernando, 2006. "Competition and price adjustment in the euro area," Working Papers 0629, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
  51. Andrés, Javier & Ortega, Eva & Vallés, Javier, 2008. "Competition and inflation differentials in EMU," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 848-874, March.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kof:wpskof:11-294. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.