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Inward FDI, Value Added and Employment in US States: A Panel Cointegration Approach

  • Elias Ajaga
  • Peter Nunnenkamp

This study investigates the long-run relationships between inward FDI and economic outcomes in terms of value added and employment at the level of US states. Johansen’s (1988) cointegration technique and Toda and Yamamoto’s (1995) Granger causality tests are applied to data for the period of 1977 to 2001. We find cointegration as well as two-directional causality between FDI and outcome variables. This holds for both measures of FDI (stocks and employment in foreign affiliates) and independently of whether we consider the states’ overall economy or their manufacturing sector

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Paper provided by Kiel Institute for the World Economy in its series Kiel Working Papers with number 1420.

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Length: 23 pages
Date of creation: May 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:kie:kieliw:1420
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  1. Mark E. Doms & J . Bradford Jensen, 1998. "Comparing Wages, Skills, and Productivity between Domestically and Foreign-Owned Manufacturing Establishments in the United States," NBER Chapters, in: Geography and Ownership as Bases for Economic Accounting, pages 235-258 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Eckhardt Bode & Peter Nunnenkamp, 2007. "Does Foreign Direct Investment Promote Regional Development in Developed Countries? A Markov Chain Approach for US States," Kiel Working Papers 1374, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  3. Head, C. Keith & Ries, John C. & Swenson, Deborah L., 1999. "Attracting foreign manufacturing: Investment promotion and agglomeration," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 197-218, March.
  4. Dufour, J.M. & Renault, E., 1995. "Short-Run and Long-Rub Causality in Time Series: Theory," Cahiers de recherche 9538, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
  5. James G. MacKinnon & Alfred A. Haug & Leo Michelis, 1996. "Numerical Distribution Functions of Likelihood Ratio Tests for Cointegration," Working Papers 1996_07, York University, Department of Economics.
  6. Girma, Sourafel & Wakelin, Katharine, 2001. "Regional Underdevelopment: Is FDI the Solution? A Semiparametric Analysis," CEPR Discussion Papers 2995, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Robert E. Lipsey, 2002. "Home and Host Country Effects of FDI," NBER Working Papers 9293, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. David Mayer-Foulkes & Peter Nunnenkamp, 2009. "Do Multinational Enterprises Contribute to Convergence or Divergence? A Disaggregated Analysis of US FDI ," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(2), pages 304-318, 05.
  9. Bill Francis & Iftekhar Hasan & Maya Waisman, 2007. "Does geography matter to bondholders?," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2007-02, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  10. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
  11. Konya, Laszlo, 2006. "Exports and growth: Granger causality analysis on OECD countries with a panel data approach," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 978-992, December.
  12. Robert J. Barro & N. Gregory Mankiw & Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 1992. "Capital Mobility in Neoclassical Models of Growth," NBER Working Papers 4206, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Abdur Chowdhury & George Mavrotas, 2006. "FDI and Growth: What Causes What?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(1), pages 9-19, 01.
  14. Toda, Hiro Y. & Yamamoto, Taku, 1995. "Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1-2), pages 225-250.
  15. Keith Head & John Ries & Deborah Swenson, 1994. "Agglomeration Benefits and Location Choice: Evidence from Japanese Manufacturing Investment in the United States," NBER Working Papers 4767, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. Edward M. Graham & Paul Krugman, 1995. "Foreign Direct Investment in the United States, 3rd Edition," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 52.
  17. Nair-Reichert, Usha & Weinhold, Diana, 2001. " Causality Tests for Cross-Country Panels: A New Look at FDI and Economic Growth in Developing Countries," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 63(2), pages 153-71, May.
  18. Crain, W Mark & Lee, Katherine J, 1999. "Economic Growth Regressions for the American States: A Sensitivity Analysis," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 37(2), pages 242-57, April.
  19. Coughlin, Cletus C & Terza, Joseph V & Arromdee, Vachira, 1991. "State Characteristics and the Location of Foreign Direct Investment within the United States," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 73(4), pages 675-83, November.
  20. John K. Mullen & Martin Williams, 2005. "Foreign Direct Investment and Regional Economic Performance," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 265-282, 04.
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