Forced to Freedom? Empirical Relations between Aid and Economic Freedom
The paper explores the relationships between economic freedom on the one side and development aid and IMF credit as approximation for conditional aid on the other side. After a short review of current literature on the issue of economic development, economic freedom, aid, and IMF credit, the paper develops a simple panel regression model to evaluate the relationship between “economic freedom” as dependent variable and “aid” and “IMF credit” as independent variables. The estimation is based upon data taken from the World Bank’s World Development Indicators and the Heritage Index of Economic Freedom. In contrast to previous research, our results allow the rejection of the hypothesis that IMF credit increases economic freedom and that aid is not contributing to economic freedom. The estimation results suggest that, firstly, aid is positively correlated with economic freedom, and secondly, that IMF credit is negatively correlated with economic freedom. Taking IMF credit as proxy for conditional aid, we conclude that for the period of observation it could not be shown that countries can be forced to economic freedom by aid conditions.
|Date of creation:||May 2006|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Kleine Märkerstrasse 8, 06108 Halle (Saale)|
Phone: (0345) 7753-60
Fax: (0345) 7753-820
Web page: http://www.iwh-halle.de
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jan-Egbert Sturm & Jakob De Haan, 2001. "How robust is the relationship between economic freedom and economic growth?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(7), pages 839-844.
- Boone, Peter, 1996. "Politics and the effectiveness of foreign aid," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 289-329, February.
- Simeon Djankov & José García-Montalvo & Marta Reynal-Querol, 2005.
"The curse of aid,"
257, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
- Dawson, John W, 1998. "Institutions, Investment, and Growth: New Cross-Country and Panel Data Evidence," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 36(4), pages 603-19, October.
- Elsabé Loots, 2006. "Aid And Development In Africa: The Debate, The Challenges And The Way Forward," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 74(3), pages 363-381, 09.
- Paul Collier & David Dollar, 2004. "Development effectiveness: what have we learnt?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(496), pages F244-F271, 06.
- Scully, Gerald W & Slottje, Daniel J, 1991. " Ranking Economic Liberty across Countries," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 69(2), pages 121-52, February.
- Boockmann, Bernhard & Dreher, Axel, 2003.
"The contribution of the IMF and the World Bank to economic freedom,"
European Journal of Political Economy,
Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 633-649, September.
- Bernhard Boockmann & Axel Dreher, 2002. "The Contribution of the IMF and the World Bank to Economic Freedom," International Finance 0207001, EconWPA.
- Boockmann, Bernhard & Dreher, Axel, 2002. "The Contribution of the IMF and the World Bank to Economic Freedom," ZEW Discussion Papers 02-18, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Haan, Jakob de & Sturm, Jan-Egbert, 1999.
"On the relationship between economic freedom and economic growth,"
CCSO Working Papers
199903, University of Groningen, CCSO Centre for Economic Research.
- de Haan, Jakob & Sturm, Jan-Egbert, 2000. "On the relationship between economic freedom and economic growth," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 215-241, June.
- De Vanssay, Xavier & Spindler, Z A, 1994. " Freedom and Growth: Do Constitutions Matter?," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 78(3-4), pages 359-72, March.
- Pitlik, Hans, 2002. "The Path of Liberalization and Economic Growth," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(1), pages 57-79.
- Easton, Stephen T & Walker, Michael A, 1997. "Income, Growth, and Economic Freedom," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(2), pages 328-32, May.
- John Hudson, 2004. "Introduction: Aid and Development," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(496), pages F185-F190, 06.
- de Haan, Jakob & Sturm, Jan-Egbert, 2003. "Does more democracy lead to greater economic freedom? New evidence for developing countries," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 547-563, September.
- Sadequl Islam, 1996. "Economic freedom, per capita income and economic growth," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(9), pages 595-597.
- Stephen Knack, 2001. "Aid Dependence and the Quality of Governance: Cross-Country Empirical Tests," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 68(2), pages 310-329, October.
- Heckelman, Jac & Knack, Stephen, 2005.
"Foreign aid and market-liberalizing reform,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
3557, The World Bank.
- Heckelman, Jac C & Stroup, Michael D, 2000. "Which Economic Freedoms Contribute to Growth?," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(4), pages 527-44.
- Mosley, Paul & Hudson, John & Horrell, Sara, 1987. "Aid, the Public Sector and the Market in Less Developed Countries," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 97(387), pages 616-41, September.
- Tony Addison & George Mavrotas & Mark McGillivray, 2005. "Aid to Africa: an unfinished agenda," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(8), pages 989-1001.
- de Haan, Jakob, 2003. "Economic freedom: editor's introduction," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 395-403, September.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iwh:dispap:8-06. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Tobias Henning)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.