IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Military Spending, the Peace Dividend, and Fiscal Adjustment


  • Benedict J. Clements
  • Jerald A Schiff
  • Peter Debaere
  • Hamid R Davoodi


The end of the Cold War has ushered in significant changes in worldwide military spending. This paper finds that the easing of (1) international tensions, (2) regional tensions, and (3) the existence of IMF-supported programs are related to lower military spending and a higher share of nonmilitary spending in total government outlays. These factors account for up to 66 percent, 26 percent, and 11 percent of the decline in military spending, respectively. Furthermore, fiscal adjustment has implied a larger cut in military spending of countries with IMF-supported programs.

Suggested Citation

  • Benedict J. Clements & Jerald A Schiff & Peter Debaere & Hamid R Davoodi, 1999. "Military Spending, the Peace Dividend, and Fiscal Adjustment," IMF Working Papers 99/87, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:99/87

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Chinn, Menzie D. & Ito, Hiro, 2006. "What matters for financial development? Capital controls, institutions, and interactions," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 163-192, October.
    2. Karen K. Lewis, 1999. "Trying to Explain Home Bias in Equities and Consumption," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(2), pages 571-608, June.
    3. Adams, Richard Jr. & Page, John, 2005. "Do international migration and remittances reduce poverty in developing countries?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(10), pages 1645-1669, October.
    4. Supriyo De & Ergys Islamaj & M. Ayhan Kose & S. Reza Yousefi, 2016. "Remittances over the business cycle: theory and evidence," CAMA Working Papers 2016-13, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    5. Chakra P. ACHARYA & Roberto LEON-GONZALEZ, 2013. "The Impact of Remittance on Poverty and Inequality: A Micro-Simulation Study for Nepal," Asian Journal of Empirical Research, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 3(9), pages 1061-1080, September.
    6. Gazi M. Hassan & Mark J. Holmes, 2013. "Remittances and the real effective exchange rate," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(35), pages 4959-4970, December.
    7. Combes, Jean-Louis & Ebeke, Christian, 2011. "Remittances and Household Consumption Instability in Developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(7), pages 1076-1089, July.
    8. Giuliano, Paola & Ruiz-Arranz, Marta, 2009. "Remittances, financial development, and growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(1), pages 144-152, September.
    9. Pablo Fajnzylber & J. Humberto López, 2008. "Remittances and Development : Lessons from Latin America," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6911, June.
    10. Thorsten Beck & Maria Soledad Martinez Peria, 2011. "What Explains the Price of Remittances? An Examination Across 119 Country Corridors," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 25(1), pages 105-131, May.
    11. Richard P.C. Brown & Eliana Jimenez, 2008. "Estimating the net effects of migration and remittances on poverty and inequality: comparison of Fiji and Tonga," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(4), pages 547-571.
    12. Jeffrey Frankel, 2011. "Are Bilateral Remittances Countercyclical?," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 22(1), pages 1-16, February.
    13. Acosta, Pablo & Calderon, Cesar & Fajnzylber, Pablo & Lopez, Humberto, 2008. "What is the Impact of International Remittances on Poverty and Inequality in Latin America?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 89-114, January.
    14. Lane, Philip R. & Milesi-Ferretti, Gian Maria, 2007. "The external wealth of nations mark II: Revised and extended estimates of foreign assets and liabilities, 1970-2004," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 223-250, November.
    15. repec:idb:idbbks:353 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Michael T. Gapen & Ralph Chami & Peter J Montiel & Adolfo Barajas & Connel Fullenkamp, 2009. "Do Workers’ Remittances Promote Economic Growth?," IMF Working Papers 09/153, International Monetary Fund.
    17. Maurizio Bussolo & María Soledad Martínez Peria & César Calderón & Yira Mascaró & Mette E. Nielsen & Pablo Acosta & J. Humberto López & Çaglar Özden & Yoko Niimi & Luis Molina & Florencia Moizeszowicz, 2008. "Remittances and Development: Lessons from Latin America," IDB Publications (Books), Inter-American Development Bank, number 59678 edited by J. Humberto López & Pablo Fajnzylber, February.
    18. CLICHICI, Dorina & COLESNICOVA, Tatiana, 2014. "The Impact Of Macroeconomic Factors On Non-Performing Loans In The Republic Of Moldova," Journal of Financial and Monetary Economics, Centre of Financial and Monetary Research "Victor Slavescu", vol. 1(1), pages 73-78.
    19. repec:idb:brikps:59678 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Balli, Faruk & Rana, Faisal, 2015. "Determinants of risk sharing through remittances," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 107-116.
    21. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina & Pozo, Susan, 2004. "Workers' Remittances and the Real Exchange Rate: A Paradox of Gifts," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1407-1417, August.
    22. Barham, Bradford & Boucher, Stephen, 1998. "Migration, remittances, and inequality: estimating the net effects of migration on income distribution," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 307-331, April.
    23. Berhe Mekonnen Beyene, 2014. "The Effects of International Remittances on Poverty and Inequality in Ethiopia," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 50(10), pages 1380-1396, November.
    24. Kose, M. Ayhan & Prasad, Eswar S. & Terrones, Marco E., 2009. "Does financial globalization promote risk sharing?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(2), pages 258-270, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:99/87. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jim Beardow) or (Hassan Zaidi). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.