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Exchange Market Pressure and Monetary Policy; Asia and Latin America in the 1990s


  • Evan C Tanner


Exchange market pressure (EMP), the sum of exchange rate depreciation and reserve outflows (scaled by base money), summarizes the flow excess supply of money in a managed exchange rate regime. Examining Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Indonesia, Korea, and Thailand, this paper finds that monetary policy affects EMP as generally expected: contractionary monetary policy helps reduce EMP. The monetary policy stance is best measured by domestic credit growth (since interest rates contain both policy- and market-determined elements). In response to higher EMP, monetary authorities boosted domestic credit growth both in Mexico (confirming previous research) and in the Asian countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Evan C Tanner, 1999. "Exchange Market Pressure and Monetary Policy; Asia and Latin America in the 1990s," IMF Working Papers 99/114, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:99/114

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    Cited by:

    1. Caporale, Guglielmo Maria & Cipollini, Andrea & Demetriades, Panicos O., 2005. "Monetary policy and the exchange rate during the Asian crisis: identification through heteroscedasticity," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 39-53, February.
    2. Sylvester C. W. Eijffinger & Benedikt Goderis, 2008. "The Effect of Monetary Policy on Exchange Rates during Currency Crises: the Role of Debt, Institutions, and Financial Openness," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(3), pages 559-575, August.
    3. Allen, Franklin & Gu, Xian & Kowalewski, Oskar, 2012. "Financial crisis, structure and reform," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(11), pages 2960-2973.
    4. Feldkircher, Martin & Horvath, Roman & Rusnak, Marek, 2014. "Exchange market pressures during the financial crisis: A Bayesian model averaging evidence," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 21-41.
    5. Ahmed Kamaly & Nese Erbil, 2000. "A Var Analysis of Exchange Market Pressure: A Case Study for the MENA Region," Working Papers 2025, Economic Research Forum, revised 09 Jul 2000.
    6. Evan C Tanner, 2002. "Exchange Market Pressure, Currency Crises, and Monetary Policy; Additional Evidence From Emerging Markets," IMF Working Papers 02/14, International Monetary Fund.
    7. Hallwood, C. Paul & Marsh, Ian W., 2004. "Exchange market pressure on the pound-dollar exchange rate: 1925-1931," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 249-264, August.
    8. Hall, Stephen G. & Kenjegaliev, Amangeldi & Swamy, P.A.V.B. & Tavlas, George S., 2013. "Measuring currency pressures: The cases of the Japanese yen, the Chinese yuan, and the UK pound," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 1-20.
    9. M. Idrees Khawaja, 2007. "Exchange Market Pressure and Monetary Policy: Evidence from Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 12(2), pages 83-114, Jul-Dec.
    10. Zettelmeyer, Jeromin, 2004. "The impact of monetary policy on the exchange rate: evidence from three small open economies," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 635-652, April.
    11. Scott W Hegerty, 2013. "Exchange Market Pressure, Output Drops, and Domestic Credit: Do Emerging Markets Behave Differently?," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(4), pages 2583-2595.
    12. Augustine A. Boakye & Hassan Molana, 2007. "Fluctuation in the International Currency Reserves of Less Developed Countries: HIPC vs Non-HIPC," Dundee Discussion Papers in Economics 203, Economic Studies, University of Dundee.
    13. Simone Bertoli & Giampiero Gallo & Giorgio Ricchiuti, 2010. "Exchange market pressure: some caveats in empirical applications," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(19), pages 2435-2448.
    14. Jan-Egbert Sturm & Timo Wollmershäuser, 2008. "The Stress of Having a Single Monetary Policy in Europe," CESifo Working Paper Series 2251, CESifo Group Munich.
    15. Mody, Ashoka & Taylor, Mark P., 2007. "Regional vulnerability: The case of East Asia," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(8), pages 1292-1310, December.
    16. Chul Park, Yung & Chung, Chae-Shick & Wang, Yunjong, 2001. "Fear of Floating: Korea's Exchange Rate Policy after the Crisis," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 225-251, June.
    17. M. Idrees Khawaja & Musleh-ud Din, 2007. "Instrument of Managing Exchange Market Pressure: Money Supply or Interest Rate," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 46(4), pages 381-394.
    18. Jean-Louis COMBES & Patrick PLANE & Tidiane KINDA, 2010. "Capital Flows and their Impact on the Real Effective Exchange Rate," Working Papers 201032, CERDI.
    19. Boorman, Jack & Lane, Timothy & Schulze-Ghattas, Marianne & Bulir, Ales & Ghosh, Atish R. & Hamann, Javier & Mourmouras, Alex & Phillips, Steven, 2000. "Managing financial crises: the experience in East Asia," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 1-67, December.
    20. Scott W Hegerty, 2010. "Exchange-market pressure and currency crises in Latin America: Empirical tests of their macroeconomic determinants," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 30(3), pages 2210-2219.
    21. Yu-Ming Hsiao & Sheng-Chieh Pan & Po-Chin Wu, 2010. "Can intervention indices detect central bank's actual intervention behaviour?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(15), pages 1525-1530.
    22. Ahmed M. Khalid, 2006. "Is Inflation Targeting the Best Policy Choice for Emerging Economies? A Survey of Emerging Market Experiences and Lessons for Pakistan," SBP Research Bulletin, State Bank of Pakistan, Research Department, vol. 2, pages 145-165.
    23. Marek Dabrowski, 2002. "Currency Crises in Emerging - Market Economis: Causes, Consequences and Policy Lessons," CASE Network Reports 0051, CASE-Center for Social and Economic Research.
    24. Sufian, Fadzlan, 2009. "Determinants of bank efficiency during unstable macroeconomic environment: Empirical evidence from Malaysia," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 54-77, January.
    25. Gochoco-Bautista, Maria Socorro & Bautista, Carlos C., 2005. "Monetary policy and exchange market pressure: The case of the Philippines," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 153-168, March.

    More about this item


    Exchange markets; Reserves; Monetary policy; Exchange Market Pressure; Domestic Credit; Exchange Rate; Vector Autoregression; monetary base; money supply; inflation; monetary fund;

    JEL classification:

    • E4 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates
    • F3 - International Economics - - International Finance
    • F4 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance


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