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Competitiveness in Transition Economies: What Scope for Real Appreciation?

  • Kornélia Krajnyák
  • Jeromin Zettelmeyer

This paper estimates equilibrium dollar wages for 15 transition economies. Equilibrium dollar wages are interpreted as full employment wages consistent with a country’s physical and human capital endowment, and estimated by regressing actual dollar wages on productivity and human capital proxies in a short (1990-95) panel of 85 countries. The main results are: (i) equilibrium dollar wages have appreciated steadily in the Baltic countries and fast-reforming Central and Eastern European (CEE) transition economies, but have been flat in most CIS countries; and (ii) 1996 actual dollar wages remain below estimated equilibrium dollar wages for most but not all transition countries covered.

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Paper provided by International Monetary Fund in its series IMF Working Papers with number 97/149.

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Length: 55
Date of creation: 01 Nov 1997
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:97/149
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  1. Graciela Laura Kaminsky, 1997. "Leading Indicators of Currency Crises," IMF Working Papers 97/79, International Monetary Fund.
  2. Irving B. Kravis & Robert E. Lipsey, 1986. "The Assessment of National Price Levels," NBER Working Papers 1912, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Officer, Lawrence H., 1989. "The national price level: Theory and estimation," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 351-373.
  4. Dollar, David, 1992. "Outward-Oriented Developing Economies Really Do Grow More Rapidly: Evidence from 95 LDCs, 1976-1985," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 40(3), pages 523-44, April.
  5. Wendy Carlin & Philippe Aghion, 1996. "Restructuring outcomes and the evolution of ownership patterns in Central and Eastern Europe," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 4(2), pages 371-388, October.
  6. Richards, Anthony J. & Tersman, Gunnar H. R., 1996. "Growth, Nontradables, and Price Convergence in the Baltics," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 121-145, October.
  7. Jan Rutkowski, 1996. "High skills pay off: the changing wage structure during economic transition in Poland," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 4(1), pages 89-112, 05.
  8. Lionel Halpern & Charles Wyplosz, 1996. "Equilibrium Exchange Rates in Transition Economies," IMF Working Papers 96/125, International Monetary Fund.
  9. Keane, Michael P & Runkle, David E, 1992. "On the Estimation of Panel-Data Models with Serial Correlation When Instruments Are Not Strictly Exogenous," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 10(1), pages 1-9, January.
  10. Clague, Christopher K, 1988. "Purchasing-Power Parities and Exchange Rates in Latin America," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 36(3), pages 529-41, April.
  11. Nouriel Roubini & Paul Wachtel, 1998. "Current Account Sustainability in Transition Economies," NBER Working Papers 6468, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Jiri Vecerník, 1995. "Changing earnings distribution in the Czech republic: survey evidence from 1988-1994," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 3(3), pages 355-371, 09.
  13. Dornbusch, Rudiger, 1983. "Real Interest Rates, Home Goods, and Optimal External Borrowing," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 91(1), pages 141-53, February.
  14. Barro, Robert J & Lee, Jong Wha, 1996. "International Measures of Schooling Years and Schooling Quality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(2), pages 218-23, May.
  15. Keane, Michael P & Runkle, David E, 1992. "On the Estimation of Panel-Data Models with Serial Correlation When Instruments Are Not Strictly Exogenous: Reply," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 10(1), pages 26-29, January.
  16. Clague, Christopher, 1986. "Determinants of the National Price Level: Some Empirical Results," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 68(2), pages 320-23, May.
  17. Whitney K. Newey & Kenneth D. West, 1986. "A Simple, Positive Semi-Definite, Heteroskedasticity and AutocorrelationConsistent Covariance Matrix," NBER Technical Working Papers 0055, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Guillermo A. Calvo & Morris Goldstein & Eduard Hochreiter (ed.), 1996. "Private Capital Flows to Emerging Markets after the Mexican Crisis," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 49.
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