Measurement of Co-Circulation of Currencies
“Co-circulation” involves the regular use of two or more currencies within an economy. This paper examines methodologies to measure the extent to which foreign currencies are circulated within an economy. Ample anecdotal evidence exists that the U.S. dollar, DM, and other currencies are widely used outside their home countries, as general mediums of exchange, as speculative instruments, or as means of saving. Co-circulation is rarely estimated, which can result in serious errors in statistical estimates of international capital flows and monetary aggregates. We examine a variety of measurement techniques that might be used in various situations. However, estimation remains difficult or impossible in some settings. Limited evidence available suggests that co-circulation is widespread and large scale in some countries. In the final section, we discuss some policy implications of co-circulation regarding seigniorage, inflation control, and the partial integration of monetary systems that accompanies co-circulation. An appendix by Roman Zytek discusses possible sampling biases in measuring co-circulation due to segmentation in markets.
|Date of creation:||01 Mar 1995|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC USA|
Phone: (202) 623-7000
Fax: (202) 623-4661
Web page: http://www.imf.org/external/pubind.htm
More information through EDIRC
|Order Information:||Web: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/pubs/ord_info.htm|
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:95/34. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jim Beardow)or (Hassan Zaidi)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.