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Sterilization of Money Inflows; Difficult (Calvo) or Easy (Reisen)?

  • Jeffrey A. Frankel

Some countries undergoing exchange-rate-based stabilization and financial liberalization in Latin America, Asia and elsewhere have faced large capital inflows since 1991. Many have tried to sterilize the reserve inflows. Calvo, Leiderman, and Reinhart argue essentially that sterilization is more difficult than generally realized, due to the interest costs on sterilization bonds. Reisen argues essentially that sterilization is easier than generally believed. This paper reviews the issues in the simplest textbook model and concludes that local interest rates are not likely to rise if the source of the disturbance is an exogenous capital inflow, but will rise if the disturbance is an increase in money demand or an increase in exports.

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Paper provided by International Monetary Fund in its series IMF Working Papers with number 94/159.

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Length: 38
Date of creation: 01 Dec 1994
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:94/159
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  1. Frankel, Jeffrey A & Chinn, Menzie D, 1993. "Exchange Rate Expectations and the Risk Premium: Tests for a Cross Section of 17 Currencies," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 1(2), pages 136-44, June.
  2. Reinhart, Carmen & Calvo, Guillermo & Leiderman, Leonardo, 1993. "Af1uencia de capital y apreciacion del tipo de cambio real en America Latina: E1 papel de los factores externos
    [Capital Inflows and Real Exchange Rate Appreciation in Latin America: The Role of Ex
    ," MPRA Paper 13681, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Guillermo A. Calvo & Leonardo Leiderman & Carmen M. Reinhart, 1994. "The Capital Inflows Problem: Concepts And Issues," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 12(3), pages 54-66, 07.
  4. Kamas, Linda, 1985. "External disturbances and the independence of monetary policy under the crawling peg in Colombia," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(3-4), pages 313-327, November.
  5. Kamas, Linda, 1986. "The Balance of Payments Offset to Monetary Policy: Monetarist, Portfolio Balance, and Keynesian Estimates for Mexico and Venezuela," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 18(4), pages 467-81, November.
  6. Edwards, Sebastian, 1985. "Money, the Rate of Devaluation, and Interest Rates in a Semiopen Economy: Colombia, 1968-82," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 17(1), pages 59-68, February.
  7. Gikas A. Hardouvelis & Rafael La Porta & Thierry A. Wizman, 1993. "What Moves the Discount on Country Equity Funds?," NBER Working Papers 4571, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Sebastian Edwards & Mohsin S. Khan, 1985. "Interest Rate Determination in Developing Countries: A Conceptual Framework," NBER Working Papers 1531, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1993. "On Exchange Rates," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262061546.
  10. Guillermo A. Calvo, 1991. "The Perils of Sterilization," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 38(4), pages 921-926, December.
  11. Leonardo Leiderman & Carmen Reinhart & Guillermo Calvo, 1992. "Capital Inflows and Real Exchange Rate Appreciation in Latin America; The Role of External Factors," IMF Working Papers 92/62, International Monetary Fund.
  12. Mohsin S. Khan, 1985. "An Analytical Approach to Interest Rate Determination in Developing Countries," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 24(3-4), pages 481-495.
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