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Deer Hunting; Misalignment, Debt Accumulation, and Desired Equilibrium Exchange Rates


  • Mark P. Taylor
  • Michael J. Artis


This paper deals with hysteresis in the desired equilibrium exchange rate (DEER) arising from misalignment. When the actual real exchange rate departs from its DEER value, current account realizations--and consequently, debt service obligations--will differ from those assumed in the initial DEER calculation, necessitating its recomputation. The paper derives a formal expression for this hysteresis effect in the DEER, studies the convergence properties of a system in which the evolution of actual exchange rates depends on the DEER and provides illustrative calculations of its historical significance. Finally, the paper derives and applies rules of thumb for computing the hysteresis effect when considering the rate of approach of an exchange rate to its DEER value.

Suggested Citation

  • Mark P. Taylor & Michael J. Artis, 1993. "Deer Hunting; Misalignment, Debt Accumulation, and Desired Equilibrium Exchange Rates," IMF Working Papers 93/48, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:93/48

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    Cited by:

    1. Antoine Bouveret & Bruno Ducoudre, 2007. "On the Contingency of Equilibrium Exchange Rates with Time - Consistent Economic Policies," Sciences Po publications 2007-08, Sciences Po.
    2. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/6125 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Kateřina Šmídková & Aleš Bulíř, 2004. "Would Fast Sailing towards the Euro Be Smooth? What Fundamental Real Exchange Rates Tells Us about Acceding Economies," Working Papers IES 64, Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Economic Studies, revised 2004.
    4. Kateřina Šmídková & Ray Barrell & Dawn Holland, 2003. "Estimates of fundamental real exchange rates for the five eu pre-accession countries," Prague Economic Papers, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2003(4).
    5. Hervé Joly & Céline Prigent & Nicolas Sobczak, 1996. "Le taux de change réel d'équilibre : une introduction," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 123(2), pages 1-21.
    6. Kateřina Šmídková & Aleš Bulíř, 2005. "Would Fast Sailing Towards the Euro Be Smooth? What Fundamental Real Exchange Rates Tell Us," Prague Economic Papers, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2005(4), pages 291-316.
    7. Carmen Mar? Mart?ez, 2003. "Current Account Imbalances, Thriftiness And The Real Exchange Rate In A Growing Economy," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 589.03, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
    8. Bruno Ducoudre, 2008. "Structure par terme des taux d’intérêt et anticipations de la politique économique," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/5221, Sciences Po.
    9. Claude Aline Zobo, 2014. "European Crisis and Sustainability of the CFA Franc Fixity to Euro," The Journal of European Theoretical and Applied Studies, The Center for European Studies at Kirklareli University - Turkey, vol. 2(2), pages 53-71.


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