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Taxation and Corporate Debt; Are Banks any Different?

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  • Jost Heckemeyer
  • Ruud A. de Mooij

Abstract

This paper explores whether corporate tax bias toward debt finance differs between banks and nonbanks, using a large panel of micro data. On average, it finds that there is no significant difference. The marginal tax effect for both banks and non-banks is close to 0.2. However, the responsiveness differs considerably across the size distribution and the conditional leverage distribution. For nonbanks, we find a U-shaped relationship between asset size and tax responsiveness, although this pattern does not hold universally across the conditional leverage distribution. For banks, in contrast, the tax responsiveness declines linearly in asset size. Quantile regressions show further that capitaltight banks are significantly less responsive than are capital-abundant banks; the same pattern holds for the largest non-banks. Still, even the largest banks with high conditional leverage ratios feature a significant, positive tax response.

Suggested Citation

  • Jost Heckemeyer & Ruud A. de Mooij, 2013. "Taxation and Corporate Debt; Are Banks any Different?," IMF Working Papers 13/221, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:13/221
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Thomas Hemmelgarn & Daniel Teichmann, 2014. "Tax reforms and the capital structure of banks," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 21(4), pages 645-693, August.
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    3. Gordon, Roger H. & Lee, Young, 2001. "Do taxes affect corporate debt policy? Evidence from U.S. corporate tax return data," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(2), pages 195-224, November.
    4. Ryo Kato & Shun Kobayashi & Yumi Saita, 2010. "Calibrating the Level of Capital: The Way We See It," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 10-E-6, Bank of Japan.
    5. Koenker,Roger, 2005. "Quantile Regression," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521845731, June.
    6. Reint Gropp & Florian Heider, 2010. "The Determinants of Bank Capital Structure," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 14(4), pages 587-622.
    7. Lars P. Feld & Jost Henrich Heckemeyer & Michael Overesch, 2011. "Capital Structure Choice and Company Taxation: A Meta-Study," CESifo Working Paper Series 3400, CESifo.
    8. Barrell, Ray & Davis, E. Philip & Karim, Dilruba & Liadze, Iana, 2010. "Bank regulation, property prices and early warning systems for banking crises in OECD countries," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 2255-2264, September.
    9. Feld, Lars P. & Heckemeyer, Jost H. & Overesch, Michael, 2013. "Capital structure choice and company taxation: A meta-study," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 2850-2866.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Luca, Oana & Tieman, Alexander F., 2019. "Financial sector debt bias," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 1-1.
    2. De Mooij, Ruud & Hebous, Shafik, 2018. "Curbing corporate debt bias: Do limitations to interest deductibility work?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 368-378.
    3. Leonardo Gambacorta & Giacomo Ricotti & Suresh Sundaresan & Zhenyu Wang, 2017. "The effects of tax on bank liability structure," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1101, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    4. Gawehn, Vanessa, 2019. "Banks and corporate income taxation: A review," arqus Discussion Papers in Quantitative Tax Research 247, arqus - Arbeitskreis Quantitative Steuerlehre.
    5. Daniel Anarfi & Danuše Nerudová, 2017. "Profit-Shifting Activities in the Mining Sector: Evidence from the Czech Republic," European Journal of Business Science and Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Business and Economics, vol. 3(1), pages 5-12, October.
    6. Bremus, Franziska & Schmidt, Kirsten & Tonzer, Lena, 2019. "Interactions between bank levies and corporate taxes: How is the bank leverage affected?," ESRB Working Paper Series 103, European Systemic Risk Board.
    7. Adrian Van Rixtel & Luna Romo González & Jing Yang, 2015. "The determinants of long-term debt issuance by European banks: evidence of two crises," BIS Working Papers 513, Bank for International Settlements.
    8. Serena Fatica & Wouter Heynderickx & Andrea Pagano, 2020. "Banks, Debt And Risk: Assessing The Spillovers Of Corporate Taxes," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 58(2), pages 1023-1044, April.
    9. Aida Caldera Sánchez & Filippo Gori, 2016. "Can Reforms Promoting Growth Increase Financial Fragility?: An Empirical Assessment," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 1340, OECD Publishing.
    10. Dutt, Verena K. & Nicolay, Katharina & Vay, Heiko & Voget, Johannes, 2019. "Can European banks' country-by-country reports reveal profit shifting? An analysis of the information content of EU banks' disclosures," ZEW Discussion Papers 19-042, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    11. Merz, Julia & Overesch, Michael, 2016. "Profit shifting and tax response of multinational banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 57-68.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Banks; Debt; Corporate sector; Corporate taxes; Nonbank financial sector; Taxation; Corporate tax; debt bias; leverage; non-financial firms; quantile regressions; bank size; capital structure; banking; tax sensitivity; tax elasticity; Business Taxes and Subsidies;

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • H25 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Business Taxes and Subsidies

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