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Taxation and Corporate Debt; Are Banks any Different?

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  • Jost Heckemeyer
  • Ruud A. de Mooij

Abstract

This paper explores whether corporate tax bias toward debt finance differs between banks and nonbanks, using a large panel of micro data. On average, it finds that there is no significant difference. The marginal tax effect for both banks and non-banks is close to 0.2. However, the responsiveness differs considerably across the size distribution and the conditional leverage distribution. For nonbanks, we find a U-shaped relationship between asset size and tax responsiveness, although this pattern does not hold universally across the conditional leverage distribution. For banks, in contrast, the tax responsiveness declines linearly in asset size. Quantile regressions show further that capitaltight banks are significantly less responsive than are capital-abundant banks; the same pattern holds for the largest non-banks. Still, even the largest banks with high conditional leverage ratios feature a significant, positive tax response.

Suggested Citation

  • Jost Heckemeyer & Ruud A. de Mooij, 2013. "Taxation and Corporate Debt; Are Banks any Different?," IMF Working Papers 13/221, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:13/221
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Thomas Hemmelgarn & Daniel Teichmann, 2014. "Tax reforms and the capital structure of banks," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 21(4), pages 645-693, August.
    2. Murray Z. Frank & Vidhan K. Goyal, 2009. "Capital Structure Decisions: Which Factors Are Reliably Important?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 38(1), pages 1-37, March.
    3. Gordon, Roger H. & Lee, Young, 2001. "Do taxes affect corporate debt policy? Evidence from U.S. corporate tax return data," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(2), pages 195-224, November.
    4. Ryo Kato & Shun Kobayashi & Yumi Saita, 2010. "Calibrating the Level of Capital: The Way We See It," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 10-E-6, Bank of Japan.
    5. Koenker,Roger, 2005. "Quantile Regression," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521845731, January.
    6. Reint Gropp & Florian Heider, 2010. "The Determinants of Bank Capital Structure," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 14(4), pages 587-622.
    7. Feld, Lars P. & Heckemeyer, Jost H. & Overesch, Michael, 2013. "Capital structure choice and company taxation: A meta-study," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 2850-2866.
    8. Barrell, Ray & Davis, E. Philip & Karim, Dilruba & Liadze, Iana, 2010. "Bank regulation, property prices and early warning systems for banking crises in OECD countries," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 2255-2264, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Adrian Van Rixtel & Luna Romo González & Jing Yang, 2015. "The determinants of long-term debt issuance by European banks: evidence of two crises," BIS Working Papers 513, Bank for International Settlements.
    2. Leonardo Gambacorta & Giacomo Ricotti & Suresh Sundaresan & Zhenyu Wang, 2017. "The effects of tax on bank liability structure," BIS Working Papers 611, Bank for International Settlements.
    3. Merz, Julia & Overesch, Michael, 2016. "Profit shifting and tax response of multinational banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 57-68.
    4. repec:men:journl:v:3:y:2017:i:1:p:5-12 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Banks; Debt; Corporate sector; Corporate taxes; Nonbank financial sector; Taxation; Corporate tax; debt bias; leverage; non-financial firms; quantile regressions; bank size; capital structure; banking; tax sensitivity; tax elasticity; Business Taxes and Subsidies;

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • H25 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Business Taxes and Subsidies

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