Two Sides of the Same Coin? Rebalancing and Inclusive Growth in China
This paper uses the Shapley Value decomposition technique to assess the factors behind the rise of inequality in China. It finds that, in many ways, inequality may have been an inevitable by-product of China’s investment and export-led growth model. Between Chinese households, we find that the most important factors explaining income inequality are location, education, access to health insurance, and labor market variables, including the sector of employment and enterprise size. Across China’s provinces, divergences in per capita incomes are driven by the relative level of capital-intensity, public spending, financial access, privatization, and urbanization. In addition, excess liquidity may have exacerbated inequality in the last decade, by driving up property prices and the wealth gap. Based on these results, policies that could help broaden the benefits of growth in China include maintaining prudent monetary and credit policies, a more progressive fiscal tax and expenditure system, higher public spending on health and education, deregulation and reforms to increase competition, measures to raise labor incomes and assist vulnerable workers, and better access to finance for both households and SMEs, including in rural areas. Not surprisingly, given the argued nexus between China’s growth strategy and inequality, many of these reforms are the same ones that would help rebalance its economy toward consumption and household incomes.
|Date of creation:||27 Aug 2013|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC USA|
Phone: (202) 623-7000
Fax: (202) 623-4661
Web page: http://www.imf.org/external/pubind.htm
More information through EDIRC
|Order Information:||Web: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/pubs/ord_info.htm|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Francesca Bastagli & David Coady & Sanjeev Gupta, 2012. "Income Inequality and Fiscal Policy (2nd Edition)," IMF Staff Discussion Notes 12/08R, International Monetary Fund.
- Chris Papageorgiou & Subir Lall & Florence Jaumotte, 2008. "Rising Income Inequality; Technology, or Trade and Financial Globalization?," IMF Working Papers 08/185, .
- Guanghua Wan & Zhangyue Zhou, 2005.
"Income Inequality in Rural China: Regression-based Decomposition Using Household Data,"
Review of Development Economics,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(1), pages 107-120, 02.
- Wan, Guanghua & Zhou, Zhangyue, 2004. "Income Inequality in Rural China: Regression-based Decomposition Using Household Data," WIDER Working Paper Series 051, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- Guanghua Wan & Ming Lu & Zhao Chen, 2007.
"Globalization And Regional Income Inequality: Empirical Evidence From Within China,"
Review of Income and Wealth,
International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 53(1), pages 35-59, 03.
- Wan, Guanghua & Lu, Ming & Chen, Zhao, 2006. "Globalization and Regional Income Inequality: Empirical evidence from within China," WIDER Working Paper Series 139, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- Jun Zhang, 2008. "Estimation of China's provincial capital stock (1952-2004) with applications," Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(2), pages 177-196.
- Fan, Shenggen & Kanbur, Ravi & Zhang, Xiaobo, 2008. "Regional Inequality In China: An Overview," Working Papers 51157, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:13/185. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jim Beardow)or (Hassan Zaidi)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.