Measuring Competitiveness; Trade in Goods or Tasks?
With global supply chains, any value added or production task can be traded as part of goods. This means that competitiveness can be measured either in terms of “tasks” (Bems and Johnson, 2012), or goods, but with goods prices reflecting the cost of tasks embedded in those goods. We show that when measuring competitiveness in goods, the formula used in computing the real effective exchange rates at the IMF (Bayoumi, Lee, and Jayanthi, 2005) needs to be expressed in terms of the price of value added and needs an additional term, which captures a gain or loss in competitiveness of goods due to outsourcing.
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- Thorbecke, Willem, 2011. "Investigating the effect of exchange rate changes on china's processed exports," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 33-46, June.
- Mika Saito, 2004.
"Armington elasticities in intermediate inputs trade: a problem in using multilateral trade data,"
Canadian Journal of Economics,
Canadian Economics Association, vol. 37(4), pages 1097-1117, November.
- Mika Saito, 2004. "Armington Elasticities in Intermediate Inputs Trade; A Problem in Using Multilateral Trade Data," IMF Working Papers 04/22, International Monetary Fund.
- Robert Koopman & William Powers & Zhi Wang & Shang-Jin Wei, 2010. "Give Credit Where Credit Is Due: Tracing Value Added in Global Production Chains," NBER Working Papers 16426, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Robert Koopman & William Powers & Zhi Wang & Shang-Jin Wei, 2011. "Give Credit where Credit is Due: Tracing Value Added in Global Production Chains," Working Papers 312011, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
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