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Money and Collateral


  • Manmohan Singh
  • Peter Stella


Between 1980 and before the recent crisis, the ratio of financial market debt to liquid assets rose exponentially in the U.S. (and in other financial markets), reflecting in part the greater use of securitized assets to collateralize borrowing. The subsequent crisis has reduced the pool of assets considered acceptable as collateral, resulting in a liquidity shortage. When trying to address this, policy makers will need to consider concepts of liquidity besides the traditional metric of excess bank reserves and do more than merely substitute central bank money for collateral that currently remains highly liquid.

Suggested Citation

  • Manmohan Singh & Peter Stella, 2012. "Money and Collateral," IMF Working Papers 12/95, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:12/95

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Nicola Gennaioli & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 2013. "A Model of Shadow Banking," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 68(4), pages 1331-1363, August.
    2. Moritz Schularick & Alan M. Taylor, 2012. "Credit Booms Gone Bust: Monetary Policy, Leverage Cycles, and Financial Crises, 1870-2008," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(2), pages 1029-1061, April.
    3. Eric M. Leeper & Todd B. Walker, 2012. "Perceptions and Misperceptions of Fiscal Inflation," NBER Chapters,in: Fiscal Policy after the Financial Crisis, pages 255-299 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Kenneth D. Garbade, 2007. "The emergence of "regular and predictable" as a Treasury debt management strategy," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Mar, pages 53-71.
    5. Gary Gorton & Guillermo Ordo?ez, 2014. "Collateral Crises," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(2), pages 343-378, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:jbfina:v:83:y:2017:i:c:p:232-248 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Vilma Dingova & Vaclav Hausenblas & Zlatuse Komarkova, 2014. "Collateralization and Financial Stability," Occasional Publications - Chapters in Edited Volumes,in: CNB Financial Stability Report 2013/2014, chapter 0, pages 137-147 Czech National Bank, Research Department.
    3. Nyborg, Kjell G., 2017. "Central bank collateral frameworks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 198-214.
    4. Kartik Anand & James Chapman & Prasanna Gai, 2012. "Covered bonds, core markets, and financial stability," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2012-065, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
    5. Jean Barthélémy & Vincent Bignon & Benoît Nguyen, 2017. "Illiquid Collateral and Bank Lending during the European Sovereign Debt Crisis," EconomiX Working Papers 2017-21, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.


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