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Trade Flows, Multilateral Resistance, and Firm Heterogeneity

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  • Alberto Behar
  • Benjamin D. Nelson

Abstract

We present a gravity model that accounts for multilateral resistance, firm heterogeneity and country-selection into trade, while accommodating asymmetries in trade flows. A new equation for the proportion of exporting firms takes a gravity form, such that the extensive margin is also affected by multilateral resistance. We develop Taylor approximated multilateral resistance terms with which to capture the comparative static effects of changes in trade costs. For isolated bilateral changes in trade frictions, multilateral resistance effects are small for most countries. However, if all countries reduce their trade frictions, the impact of multilateral resistance is so strong that bilateral trade falls in most cases, despite the larger trade elasticities implied by firm heterogeneity. As a consequence, the world-wide trade response, though positive, is much lower.

Suggested Citation

  • Alberto Behar & Benjamin D. Nelson, 2012. "Trade Flows, Multilateral Resistance, and Firm Heterogeneity," IMF Working Papers 12/297, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:12/297
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Anderson, James E. & Yotov, Yoto V., 2016. "Terms of trade and global efficiency effects of free trade agreements, 1990–2002," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 279-298.
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    5. Baier, Scott L. & Bergstrand, Jeffrey H., 2009. "Bonus vetus OLS: A simple method for approximating international trade-cost effects using the gravity equation," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 77-85, February.
    6. James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2003. "Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(1), pages 170-192, March.
    7. Alberto Behar & Philip Manners & Benjamin D. Nelson, 2013. "Exports and International Logistics," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 75(6), pages 855-886, December.
    8. James E. Anderson & Yoto V. Yotov, 2010. "The Changing Incidence of Geography," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(5), pages 2157-2186, December.
    9. Alberto Behar & Anthony J. Venables, 2011. "Transport Costs and International Trade," Chapters,in: A Handbook of Transport Economics, chapter 5 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    10. Peter Egger & Mario Larch & Kevin E. Staub & Rainer Winkelmann, 2011. "The Trade Effects of Endogenous Preferential Trade Agreements," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 3(3), pages 113-143, August.
    11. Alberto Behar & Laia Cirera-i-Crivillé, 2013. "Does it Matter Who You Sign With? Comparing the Impacts of North–South and South–South Trade Agreements on Bilateral Trade," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(4), pages 765-782, September.
    12. McCallum, John, 1995. "National Borders Matter: Canada-U.S. Regional Trade Patterns," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 615-623, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Steven Husted & Shuichiro Nishioka, 2015. "Productivity growth and new market entry," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 151(4), pages 687-712, November.
    2. Juliana D. Araujo & Povilas Lastauskas & Chris Papageorgiou, 2017. "Evolution of Bilateral Capital Flows to Developing Countries at Intensive and Extensive Margins," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 49(7), pages 1517-1554, October.
    3. Eugene Bempong Nyantakyi & Steven Husted & Shuichiro Nishioka, 2015. "Trade Frictions and Market Access of Developing Countries: A Product-level Empirical Investigation," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(5), pages 924-945, November.
    4. Magerman, Glenn & Studnicka, Zuzanna & Van Hove, Jan, 2016. "Distance and border effects in international trade: A comparison of estimation methods," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 10, pages 1-31.
    5. Joachim Wagner, 2017. "Distance-sensitivity of German exports: first evidence from firm-product level data," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(3), pages 140-142, February.
    6. Prehn, Sören & Brümmer, Bernhard & Thompson, Stanley R., 2010. "Payment decoupling and the intra-European calf trade," DARE Discussion Papers 1008, Georg-August University of Göttingen, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development (DARE).
    7. Paniagua, Jordi & Figueiredo, Erik & Sapena, Juan, 2015. "Quantile regression for the FDI gravity equation," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 68(7), pages 1512-1518.
    8. Natalia Drzewoszewska, 2014. "Searching for the Appropriate Measure of Multilateral Trade-Resistance Terms in the Gravity Model of Bilateral Trade Flows," Dynamic Econometric Models, Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika, vol. 14, pages 29-49.
    9. Crozet, Matthieu & Milet, Emmanuel & Mirza, Daniel, 2016. "The impact of domestic regulations on international trade in services: Evidence from firm-level data," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 585-607.
    10. Alberto Behar & Philip Manners & Benjamin D. Nelson, 2013. "Exports and International Logistics," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 75(6), pages 855-886, December.
    11. Hayakawa, Kazunobu & Yoshimi, Taiyo, 2016. "Gravity with multiple tariff schemes," IDE Discussion Papers 614, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    International trade; Trade models; Gravity models; multilateral resistance; firm heterogeneity; trade costs; trade flows; changes in trade; bilateral trade; exporter; and Firm Heterogeneity; firm heterogeneity.; General; Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Country and Industry Studies of Trade; Trade Forecasting and Simulation;

    JEL classification:

    • E5 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit
    • D3 - Microeconomics - - Distribution
    • D4 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design
    • F1 - International Economics - - Trade

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