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Income and Democracy; Lipset's Law Revisited

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  • Anke Hoeffler
  • Robert H. Bates
  • Ghada Fayad

Abstract

We revisit Lipset‘s law, which posits a positive and significant relationship between income and democracy. Using dynamic and heterogeneous panel data estimation techniques, we find a significant and negative relationship between income and democracy: higher/lower incomes per capita hinder/trigger democratization. Decomposing overall income per capita into its resource and non-resource components, we find that the coefficient on the latter is positive and significant while that on the former is significant but negative, indicating that the role of resource income is central to the result.

Suggested Citation

  • Anke Hoeffler & Robert H. Bates & Ghada Fayad, 2012. "Income and Democracy; Lipset's Law Revisited," IMF Working Papers 12/295, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:12/295
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Nouha Bougharriou & Walid Benayed & Foued Badr Gabsi, 2016. "On the determinants of democracy in the Arab World," Romanian Economic Journal, Department of International Business and Economics from the Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, vol. 18(59), pages 25-42, March.
    2. Tiago Sequeira, 2015. "Democracy and Income: taking parameter heterogeneity and cross-country dependency into account," CEFAGE-UE Working Papers 2015_10, University of Evora, CEFAGE-UE (Portugal).
    3. Hugo J. Faria & Hugo M. Montesinos-Yufa & Daniel R. Morales, 2014. "Should the Modernization Hypothesis Survive Acemoglu, Johnson, Robinson, and Yared? Some More Evidence," Econ Journal Watch, Econ Journal Watch, vol. 11(1), pages 17-36, January.
    4. Erich Gundlach & Martin Paldam, 2016. "Socioeconomic transitions as common dynamic processes," Economics Working Papers 2016-06, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.

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