Taxation and Leverage in International Banking
This paper explores how corporate taxes affect the financial structure of multinational banks. Guided by a simple theory of optimal capital structure it tests (i) whether corporate taxes induce subsidiary banks to raise their debt-asset ratio in light of the traditional debt bias; and (ii) whether international corporate tax differentials vis-a-vis foreign subsidiary banks affect the intra-bank capital structure through international debt shifting. Using a novel subsidiary-level dataset for 558 commercial bank subsidiaries of the 86 largest multinational banks in the world, we find that taxes matter significantly, through both the traditional debt bias channel and the international debt shifting that is due to the international tax differentials. The latter channel is more robust and tends to be quantitatively more important. Our results imply that taxation causes significant international debt spillovers through multinational banks, which has potentially important implications for tax policy.
|Date of creation:||30 Nov 2012|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC USA|
Phone: (202) 623-7000
Fax: (202) 623-4661
Web page: http://www.imf.org/external/pubind.htm
More information through EDIRC
|Order Information:||Web: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/pubs/ord_info.htm|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Harry Huizinga & Luc Laeven & Gaëtan Nicodème, 2007.
"Capital Structure and International Debt Shifting,"
Working Papers CEB
07-015.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- Harry Huizinga & Luc Laeven & Gaetan Nicodeme, 2006. "Capital structure and international debt shifting," European Economy - Economic Papers 2008 - 2015 263, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
- Luc Laeven & Harry Huizinga & Gaetan Nicodeme, 2007. "Capital Structure and International Debt Shifting," IMF Working Papers 07/39, .
- Huizinga, Harry & Laeven, Luc & Nicodème, Gaëtan, 2006. "Capital Structure and International Debt Shifting," CEPR Discussion Papers 5882, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Thiess Buettner & Georg Wamser, 2009.
"Internal Debt and Multinationals' Profit Shifting - Empirical Evidence from Firm-Level Panel Data,"
0918, Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation.
- Buettner, Thiess & Wamser, Georg, 2013. "Internal Debt and Multinational Profit Shifting: Empirical Evidence From Firm-Level Panel Data," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 66(1), pages 63-95, March.
- Gropp, Reint & Vesala, Jukka, 2001.
"Deposit insurance and moral hazard: does the counterfactual matter?,"
Working Paper Series
0047, European Central Bank.
- Gropp, R. & Vesala, J., 2001. "Deposit Insurance and Moral Hazard: Does the Counterfactual Matter?," Papers 47, Quebec a Montreal - Recherche en gestion.
- Alan J. Auerbach, 2001.
"Taxation and Corporate Financial Policy,"
NBER Working Papers
8203, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mills, Lillian F. & Newberry, Kaye J., 2004. "Do Foreign Multinationals’ Tax Incentives Influence Their U.S. Income Reporting and Debt Policy?," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 57(1), pages 89-107, March.
- Ugo Albertazzi & Leonardo Gambacorta, 2007.
"Bank profitability and taxation,"
Temi di discussione (Economic working papers)
649, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
- Feld, Lars P. & Heckemeyer, Jost H. & Overesch, Michael, 2011.
"Capital structure choice and company taxation: A meta-study,"
ZEW Discussion Papers
11-075, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Feld, Lars P. & Heckemeyer, Jost H. & Overesch, Michael, 2013. "Capital structure choice and company taxation: A meta-study," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 2850-2866.
- Lars P. Feld & Jost Henrich Heckemeyer & Michael Overesch, 2011. "Capital Structure Choice and Company Taxation: A Meta-Study," CESifo Working Paper Series 3400, CESifo Group Munich.
- Jacob de Haan & Tigran Poghosyan, 2011.
"Bank Size, Market Concentration, and Bank Earnings Volatility in the US,"
DNB Working Papers
282, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
- De Haan, Jakob & Poghosyan, Tigran, 2012. "Bank size, market concentration, and bank earnings volatility in the US," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 35-54.
- Ruud A. de Mooij, 2011.
"Tax Biases to Debt Finance; Assessing the Problem, Finding Solutions,"
IMF Staff Discussion Notes
11/11, International Monetary Fund.
- Ruud A. De Mooij, 2012. "Tax Biases to Debt Finance: Assessing the Problem, Finding Solutions," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 33(4), pages 489-512, December.
- Rosanne Altshuler & Harry Grubert, 2002.
"Repatriation Taxes, Repatriation Strategies and Multinational Financial Policy,"
Departmental Working Papers
200009, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
- Altshuler, Rosanne & Grubert, Harry, 2003. "Repatriation taxes, repatriation strategies and multinational financial policy," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 73-107, January.
- Rosanne Altshuler & Harry Grubert, 2001. "Repatriation Taxes, Repatriation Strategies and Multinational Financial Policy," NBER Working Papers 8144, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, 1994.
"What Do We Know About Capital Structure? Some Evidence from International Data,"
NBER Working Papers
4875, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Rajan, Raghuram G & Zingales, Luigi, 1995. " What Do We Know about Capital Structure? Some Evidence from International Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1421-1460, December.
- Cerutti, Eugenio & Dell'Ariccia, Giovanni & Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad, 2007.
"How banks go abroad: Branches or subsidiaries?,"
Journal of Banking & Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 1669-1692, June.
- John R. Graham, 2003. "Taxes and Corporate Finance: A Review," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(4), pages 1075-1129.
- Mintz, Jack M. & Weichenrieder, Alfons J., 2010. "The Indirect Side of Direct Investment: Multinational Company Finance and Taxation," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262014491, September.
- Christian Keuschnigg & Peter Egger & Wolfgang Eggert & Hannes Winner, 2009.
"Corporate Taxation, Debt Financing and Foreign Plant Ownership,"
University of St. Gallen Department of Economics working paper series 2009
2009-01, Department of Economics, University of St. Gallen.
- Egger, Peter & Eggert, Wolfgang & Keuschnigg, Christian & Winner, Hannes, 2010. "Corporate taxation, debt financing and foreign-plant ownership," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 96-107, January.
- Stewart C. Myers & Nicholas S. Majluf, 1984. "Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have InformationThat Investors Do Not Have," NBER Working Papers 1396, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- John C. Driscoll & Aart C. Kraay, 1998. "Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation With Spatially Dependent Panel Data," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(4), pages 549-560, November.
- Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicolás S., 1945-, 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Working papers 1523-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- Grubert, Harry, 1998. "Taxes and the division of foreign operating income among royalties, interest, dividends and retained earnings," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 269-290, May.
- Murray Z. Frank & Vidhan K. Goyal, 2009.
"Capital Structure Decisions: Which Factors Are Reliably Important?,"
Financial Management Association International, vol. 38(1), pages 1-37, 03.
- Frank, Murray Z. & Goyal, Vidhan K., 2009. "Capital Structure Decisions: Which Factors are Reliably Important?," MPRA Paper 22525, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- DeAngelo, Harry & Masulis, Ronald W., 1980. "Optimal capital structure under corporate and personal taxation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 3-29, March.
- Reint Gropp & Florian Heider, 2010.
"The Determinants of Bank Capital Structure,"
Review of Finance,
European Finance Association, vol. 14(4), pages 587-622.
- Mihir A. Desai & C. Fritz Foley & James R. Hines, Jr., 2003.
"A Multinational Perspective on Capital Structure Choice and Internal Capital Markets,"
NBER Working Papers
9715, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mihir A. Desai & C. Fritz Foley & James R. Hines, 2004. "A Multinational Perspective on Capital Structure Choice and Internal Capital Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(6), pages 2451-2487, December.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:12/281. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jim Beardow)or (Hassan Zaidi)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.