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Banking and Trading

Author

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  • Arnoud W.A. Boot
  • Lev Ratnovski

Abstract

We study the effects of a bank's engagement in trading. Traditional banking is relationship-based: not scalable, long-term oriented, with high implicit capital, and low risk (thanks to the law of large numbers). Trading is transactions-based: scalable, shortterm, capital constrained, and with the ability to generate risk from concentrated positions. When a bank engages in trading, it can use its ‘spare’ capital to profitablity expand the scale of trading. However, there are two inefficiencies. A bank may allocate too much capital to trading ex-post, compromising the incentives to build relationships ex-ante. And a bank may use trading for risk-shifting. Financial development augments the scalability of trading, which initially benefits conglomeration, but beyond some point inefficiencies dominate. The deepending of the financial markets in recent decades leads trading in banks to become increasingly risky, so that problems in managing and regulating trading in banks will persist for the foreseeable future. The analysis has implications for capital regulation, subsidiarization, and scope and scale restrictions in banking.

Suggested Citation

  • Arnoud W.A. Boot & Lev Ratnovski, 2012. "Banking and Trading," IMF Working Papers 12/238, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:12/238
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Ruprecht, Benedikt & Entrop, Oliver & Kick, Thomas & Wilkens, Marco, 2013. "Market timing, maturity mismatch, and risk management: Evidence from the banking industry," Discussion Papers 56/2013, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    2. Buch, Claudia M. & Koetter, Michael & Ohls, Jana, 2016. "Banks and sovereign risk: A granular view," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 1-15.
    3. Apergis, Nicholas, 2014. "The long-term role of non-traditional banking in profitability and risk profiles: Evidence from a panel of U.S. banking institutions," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 61-73.
    4. HAKIMI Abdelaziz & Ahmet DKHILI Hichem & KHLAIFIA Wafa, 2012. "Universal Banking and Credit Risk: Evidence from Tunisia," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 2(4), pages 496-504.
    5. Leonardo Gambacorta & Adrian van Rixtel, 2013. "Structural bank regulation initiatives: approaches and implications," BANCARIA, Bancaria Editrice, vol. 6, pages 14-27, June.
    6. Hryckiewicz, Aneta & Kozłowski, Łukasz, 2017. "Banking business models and the nature of financial crisis," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 1-24.
    7. Krahnen, Jan-Pieter & Noth, Felix & Schüwer, Ulrich, 2016. "Structural Reforms in Banking: The Role of Trading," IWH Discussion Papers 9/2016, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
    8. Laeven, Luc & Ratnovski, Lev & Tong, Hui, 2016. "Bank size, capital, and systemic risk: Some international evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 69(S1), pages 25-34.
    9. Elliott, Douglas J. & Rauch, Christian, 2014. "Lessons from the implementation of the Volcker Rule for banking structural reform in the European Union," SAFE White Paper Series 13, Goethe University Frankfurt, Research Center SAFE - Sustainable Architecture for Finance in Europe.
    10. repec:spd:journl:v:67:y:2017:i:3:p:49-78 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Paul Cavelaars & Jakob de Haan & Paul Hilbers & Bart Stellinga, 2013. "Challenges for financial sector supervision," DNB Occasional Studies 1106, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    12. Alexander, Gordon J. & Baptista, Alexandre M. & Yan, Shu, 2014. "Bank regulation and international financial stability: A case against the 2006 Basel framework for controlling tail risk in trading books," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 107-130.
    13. Koetter, Michael, 2013. "Market structure and competition in German banking: Modules I and IV," Working Papers 06/2013, German Council of Economic Experts / Sachverständigenrat zur Begutachtung der gesamtwirtschaftlichen Entwicklung.
    14. Götz, Martin & Krahnen, Jan Pieter & Tröger, Tobias, 2017. "Five years after the Liikanen Report: What have we learned?," SAFE White Paper Series 50, Goethe University Frankfurt, Research Center SAFE - Sustainable Architecture for Finance in Europe.
    15. repec:eee:wdevel:v:102:y:2018:i:c:p:71-89 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Tatiana Gaelle Yongoua Tchikanda, 2017. "Systemic risk and individual risk: A trade-off?," EconomiX Working Papers 2017-16, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.
    17. Lev Ratnovski, 2013. "Competition Policy for Modern Banks," IMF Working Papers 13/126, International Monetary Fund.
    18. Hryckiewicz, Aneta, 2014. "Originators, traders, neutrals, and traditioners – various banking business models across the globe. Does the business model matter for financial stability?," MPRA Paper 55118, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. repec:eee:ecmode:v:64:y:2017:i:c:p:172-177 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Natalya Martynova & Lev Ratnovski & Razvan Vlahu, 2014. "Franchise value and risk-taking in modern banks," DNB Working Papers 430, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    21. Kogler, Michael, 2015. "Rewarding Prudence: Risk Taking, Pecuniary Externalities and Optimal Bank Regulation," Economics Working Paper Series 1512, University of St. Gallen, School of Economics and Political Science.
    22. repec:eee:jbfina:v:87:y:2018:i:c:p:411-426 is not listed on IDEAS
    23. Edoardo Gaffeo & Ronny Mazzocchi, 2014. "Competition in the banking sector and economic growth: panel-based international evidence," DEM Discussion Papers 2014/02, Department of Economics and Management.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Capital; Banking; Bank regulations; Commercial banks; Resource allocation; Investment; Bank regulation; proprietary trading; relationship banking; Volcker rule; moral hazard; financial markets; bank profits; bank profitability; Government Policy and Regulation;

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G24 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

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