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Banks' Liability Structure and Mortgage Lending During the Financial Crisis


  • Jihad Dagher
  • Kazim Kazimov


We examine the impact of banks’ exposure to market liquidity shocks through wholesale funding on their supply of credit during the financial crisis in the United States. We focus on mortgage lending to minimize the impact of confounding demand factors that could potentially be large when comparing banks’ overall lending across heterogeneous categories of credit. The disaggregated data on mortgage applications that we use allows us to study the time variations in banks’ decisions to grant mortgage loans, while controlling for bank, borrower, and regional characteristics. The wealth of data also allows us to carry out matching exercises that eliminate imbalances in observable applicant characteristics between wholesale and retail banks, as well as various other robustness tests. We find that banks that were more reliant on wholesale funding curtailed their credit significantly more than retail-funded banks during the crisis. The demand for mortgage credit, on the other hand, declined evenly across wholesale and retail banks. To understand the aggregate implications of our findings, we exploit the heterogeneity in mortgage funding across U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and find that wholesale funding was a strong and significant predictor of a sharper decline in overall mortgage credit at the MSA level.

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  • Jihad Dagher & Kazim Kazimov, 2012. "Banks' Liability Structure and Mortgage Lending During the Financial Crisis," IMF Working Papers 12/155, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:12/155

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Jean-Charles Rochet & Xavier Vives, 2004. "Coordination Failures and the Lender of Last Resort: Was Bagehot Right After All?," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 2(6), pages 1116-1147, December.
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    7. Pierluigi Bologna, 2011. "Is there a Role for Funding in Explaining Recent U.S. Banks' Failures?," IMF Working Papers 11/180, International Monetary Fund.
    8. Atif Mian & Amir Sufi, 2009. "The Consequences of Mortgage Credit Expansion: Evidence from the U.S. Mortgage Default Crisis," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 124(4), pages 1449-1496.
    9. Heitor Almeida & Murillo Campello & Bruno Laranjeira & Scott Weisbenner, 2009. "Corporate Debt Maturity and the Real Effects of the 2007 Credit Crisis," NBER Working Papers 14990, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Gambacorta, Leonardo & Schiaffi, Stefano & van Rixtel, Adrian, 2017. "Changing business models in international bank funding," CEPR Discussion Papers 11957, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Bonaccorsi di Patti, Emilia & Sette, Enrico, 2016. "Did the securitization market freeze affect bank lending during the financial crisis? Evidence from a credit register," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 54-76.
    3. Cerutti, Eugenio & Dagher, Jihad & Dell'Ariccia, Giovanni, 2017. "Housing finance and real-estate booms: A cross-country perspective," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 1-13.
    4. Gianni La Cava, 2013. "Liquidity Shocks and the US Housing Credit Crisis of 2007–2008," RBA Research Discussion Papers rdp2013-05, Reserve Bank of Australia.
    5. Dejan Kovacevic, "undated". "Empirical Evidence for the Bank Lending Channel in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Does Lending Differ Between Large and Small Banks?," IHEID Working Papers 10-2015, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies.
    6. Irani, Rustom M. & Meisenzahl, Ralf R., 2015. "Loan Sales and Bank Liquidity Risk Management: Evidence from a U.S. Credit Register," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2015-1, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    7. Rita Babihuga & Marco Spaltro, 2014. "Bank Funding Costs for International Banks," IMF Working Papers 14/71, International Monetary Fund.
    8. Francesco Bripi & David Loschiavo & Davide Revelli, 2017. "Services trade and credit frictions: evidence from matched bank-firm data," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1110, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    9. Gropp, Reint & Radev, Deyan, 2017. "International banking conglomerates and the transmission of lending shocks across borders," SAFE Working Paper Series 175, Research Center SAFE - Sustainable Architecture for Finance in Europe, Goethe University Frankfurt.
    10. Tümer Kapan & Camelia Minoiu, 2013. "Balance Sheet Strength and Bank Lending During the Global Financial Crisis," IMF Working Papers 13/102, International Monetary Fund.
    11. Choi, Dong Boem & Choi, Hyun-Soo, 2016. "The effect of monetary policy on bank wholesale funding," Staff Reports 759, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, revised 01 Apr 2017.
    12. Nuno Alves & Diana Bonfim & Carla Soares, 2016. "Surviving the perfect storm: the role of the lender of last resort," Working Papers w201617, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
    13. Adrian Van Rixtel & Gabriele Gasperini, 2013. "Financial crises and bank funding: recent experience in the euro area," BIS Working Papers 406, Bank for International Settlements.
    14. repec:fip:fedgfe:2014-115 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Jung, Hosung & Kim, Dongcheol, 2015. "Bank funding structure and lending under liquidity shocks: Evidence from Korea," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 62-80.
    16. Eunice Tamoh Anu, 2016. "Investigating the Effectiveness of Mortgage Demand and the Significant Level of the Changes: Evidence from the Intervention of the Financial Crisis," International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, Human Resource Management Academic Research Society, International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, vol. 6(4), pages 136-154, April.
    17. Gropp, Reint E. & Radev, Deyan, 2017. "International banking conglomerates and the transmission of lending shocks across borders," IWH Discussion Papers 19/2017, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).


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