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ICT, Financial Inclusion, and Growth; Evidence from African Countries


  • Kangni R Kpodar
  • Mihasonirina Andrianaivo


This paper studies the impact of information and communication technologies (ICT), especially mobile phone rollout, on economic growth in a sample of African countries from 1988 to 2007. Further, we investigate whether financial inclusion is one of the channels through which mobile phone development influences economic growth. In estimating the impact of ICT on economic growth, we use a wide range of ICT indicators, including mobile and fixed telephone penetration rates and the cost of local calls. We address any endogeneity issues by using the System Generalized Method of Moment (GMM) estimator. Financial inclusion is captured by variables measuring access to financial services, such as the number of deposits or loans per head, compiled by Beck, Demirguc-Kunt, and Martinez Peria (2007) and the Consultative Group to Assist the Poor (CGAP, 2009). The results confirm that ICT, including mobile phone development, contribute significantly to economic growth in African countries. Part of the positive effect of mobile phone penetration on growth comes from greater financial inclusion. At the same time, the development of mobile phones consolidates the impact of financial inclusion on economic growth, especially in countries where mobile financial services take hold.

Suggested Citation

  • Kangni R Kpodar & Mihasonirina Andrianaivo, 2011. "ICT, Financial Inclusion, and Growth; Evidence from African Countries," IMF Working Papers 11/73, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:11/73

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Raul KATZ & Pantelis KOUTROUMPIS, 2012. "The Economic Impact of Telecommunications in Senegal," Communications & Strategies, IDATE, Com&Strat dept., vol. 1(86), pages 21-42, 2nd quart.
    2. Lechman, Ewa & Marszk, Adam, 2015. "ICT technologies and financial innovations: The case of exchange traded funds in Brazil, Japan, Mexico, South Korea and the United States," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 355-376.
    3. Richard M. Kiai & Stephen I. Ng’ang’a & David N. Kiragu & Josphat K. Kinyanjui, 2016. "The Effect of Business Environment on Investment among Financially Included Youth in Kenya," International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, Human Resource Management Academic Research Society, International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, vol. 6(4), pages 109-121, October.
    4. Hossine Sharif, Sajjad, 2016. "The Role of Telecommunication over the Economic Development of Bangladesh," MPRA Paper 77077, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 13 Aug 2016.
    5. Gourène, Grakolet Arnold Zamereith & Mendy, Pierre, 2017. "Financial Inclusion and Economic Growth in WAEMU: A Multiscale Heterogeneity Panel Causality Approach," MPRA Paper 82251, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Agyekum, Francis & Locke, Stuart & Hewa-Wellalage, Nirosha, 2016. "Financial Inclusion and Digital Financial Services: Empirical evidence from Ghana," MPRA Paper 82885, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 15 May 2017.
    7. Sassi, Seifallah & Goaied, Mohamed, 2013. "Financial development, ICT diffusion and economic growth: Lessons from MENA region," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 252-261.
    8. Malek, Mohammad Abdul & Hossain, Md. Amzad & Saha, Ratnajit & Gatzweiler, Franz W., 2013. "Mapping marginality hotspots and agricultural potentials in Bangladesh," Working Papers 154065, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF).


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