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Rainfall, Financial Development, and Remittances; Evidence From Sub-Saharan Africa

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  • Rabah Arezki
  • Markus Bruckner

Abstract

We use annual variation in rainfall to examine the effects that exogenous, transitory income shocks have on remittances in a panel of 42 Sub-Saharan African countries during the period 1960-2007. Our main finding is that these income shocks have a significant positive effect on remittances, but that the effect is significantly decreasing in the share of domestic credit to GDP. So much so, that at high levels of credit to GDP transitory increases in income had a significant negative effect on remittances. Our findings are consistent with the view that remittances take advantage of unexploited domestic investment opportunities that can exist due to domestic credit market frictions. Our findings also support the view that when barriers to financial flows are low, remittances effectively provide insurance against transitory income shocks.

Suggested Citation

  • Rabah Arezki & Markus Bruckner, 2011. "Rainfall, Financial Development, and Remittances; Evidence From Sub-Saharan Africa," IMF Working Papers 11/153, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:11/153
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Kevin Williams, 2016. "Remittances and Financial Development: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 28(3), pages 357-367, September.
    2. Mardan, Mohammed, 2017. "Why countries differ in thin capitalization rules: The role of financial development," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 1-14.
    3. Cécile Couharde & Rémi Generoso, 2015. "Hydro-climatic thresholds and economic growth reversals in developing countries: an empirical investigation," EconomiX Working Papers 2015-26, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.
    4. Baas, Timo & Melzer, Silvia, 2016. "The Macroeconomic Impact of Remittances: A Sending Country Perspective," Annual Conference 2016 (Augsburg): Demographic Change 145631, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    5. Lim, Sokchea & Morshed, A.K.M. Mahbub, 2015. "International migration, migrant stock, and remittances: Reexamining the motivations to remit," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 101-115.
    6. Giulia Bettin & Andrea F. Presbitero & Nikola L. Spatafora, 2017. "Remittances and Vulnerability in Developing Countries," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 31(1), pages 1-23.
    7. Arezki, Rabah & Brückner, Markus, 2012. "Rainfall, financial development, and remittances: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 377-385.
    8. repec:ipg:wpaper:2013-017 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Mitrut, Andreea & Wolff, François-Charles, 2014. "Remittances after natural disasters: Evidence from the 2004 Indian tsunami," Working Papers in Economics 604, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
    10. Unbreen Qayyum & Muhammad Nawaz, 2014. "Remittances and Economic Growth: The Role of Financial Development," PIDE-Working Papers 2014:100, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    11. Coulibaly, Dramane, 2015. "Remittances and financial development in Sub-Saharan African countries: A system approach," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 249-258.
    12. Giulia Bettin & Alberto Zazzaro, 2016. "The Impact of Natural Disasters on Remittances to Low- and Middle-income Countries," CSEF Working Papers 431, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
    13. Luca Marchiori & Jean Francois Maystadt & Ingmar Schumacher, 2013. "Is environmentally," Working Papers 2013-17, Department of Research, Ipag Business School.
    14. Brückner, Markus & Gradstein, Mark, 2013. "Effects of transitory shocks to aggregate output on consumption in poor countries," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(2), pages 343-357.
    15. repec:spr:empeco:v:52:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s00181-016-1103-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Lin, Faqin & Sim, Nicholas C.S., 2014. "Baltic Dry Index and the democratic window of opportunity," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 143-159.
    17. repec:eee:wdevel:v:104:y:2018:i:c:p:183-196 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. von Hagen, Jürgen & Zhang, Haiping, 2014. "Financial development, international capital flows, and aggregate output," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 66-77.
    19. repec:eee:quaeco:v:66:y:2017:i:c:p:192-201 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. repec:ipg:wpaper:17 is not listed on IDEAS
    21. Williams, Kevin, 2017. "Do remittances improve political institutions? Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 65-75.
    22. Izabela Sobiech, 2015. "Remittances, finance and growth: does financial development foster remittances and their impact on economic growth," FIW Working Paper series 158, FIW.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Remittances; Transitory Income Shocks; Financial Development; significance level; fixed effects; dependent variable; International Factor Movements and International Business: General; International Finance: General; Economic Development: General;

    JEL classification:

    • F24 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Remittances
    • F30 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - General
    • O10 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - General

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