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Bank Behavior in Response to Basel Iii; A Cross-Country Analysis


  • Thomas F. Cosimano
  • Dalia S Hakura


This paper investigates the impact of the new capital requirements introduced under the Basel III framework on bank lending rates and loan growth. Higher capital requirements, by raising banks’ marginal cost of funding, lead to higher lending rates. The data presented in the paper suggest that large banks would on average need to increase their equity-to-asset ratio by 1.3 percentage points under the Basel III framework. GMM estimations indicate that this would lead large banks to increase their lending rates by 16 basis points, causing loan growth to decline by 1.3 percent in the long run. The results also suggest that banks’ responses to the new regulations will vary considerably from one advanced economy to another (e.g. a relatively large impact on loan growth in Japan and Denmark and a relatively lower impact in the U.S.) depending on cross-country variations in banks’ net cost of raising equity and the elasticity of loan demand with respect to changes in loan rates.

Suggested Citation

  • Thomas F. Cosimano & Dalia S Hakura, 2011. "Bank Behavior in Response to Basel Iii; A Cross-Country Analysis," IMF Working Papers 11/119, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:11/119

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Jürgen Von Hagen & Tai-Kuang Ho, 2007. "Money Market Pressure and the Determinants of Banking Crises," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 39(5), pages 1037-1066, August.
    2. Paolo Angelini & Laurent Clerc & Vasco Cúrdia & Leonardo Gambacorta & Andrea Gerali & Alberto Locarno & Roberto Motto & Werner Roeger & Skander Van den Heuvel & Jan Vlček, 2015. "Basel III: Long-term Impact on Economic Performance and Fluctuations," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 83(2), pages 217-251, March.
    3. Dalia S Hakura & Ralph Chami & Thomas F. Cosimano & Adolfo Barajas, 2010. "U.S. Bank Behavior in the Wake of the 2007–2009 Financial Crisis," IMF Working Papers 10/131, International Monetary Fund.
    4. Luc Laeven & Fabian Valencia, 2010. "Resolution of Banking Crises; The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly," IMF Working Papers 10/146, International Monetary Fund.
    5. Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2009. "Varieties of Crises and Their Dates," Introductory Chapters,in: This Time Is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly Princeton University Press.
    6. Acharya, Viral V. & Schnabl, Philipp & Suarez, Gustavo, 2013. "Securitization without risk transfer," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(3), pages 515-536.
    7. Chami, Ralph & Cosimano, Thomas F., 2010. "Monetary policy with a touch of Basel," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 62(3), pages 161-175, May.
    8. Mark J. Flannery & Kasturi P. Rangan, 2008. "What Caused the Bank Capital Build-up of the 1990s?," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 12(2), pages 391-429.
    9. Reinhart, Karmen & Rogoff, Kenneth, 2009. ""This time is different": panorama of eight centuries of financial crises," Economic Policy, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, vol. 1, pages 77-114, March.
    10. William Francis & Matthew Osborne, 2009. "Bank regulation, capital and credit supply: Measuring the Impact of Prudential Standards," Occasional Papers 36, Financial Services Authority.
    11. Fabian Valencia & Luc Laeven, 2008. "Systemic Banking Crises; A New Database," IMF Working Papers 08/224, International Monetary Fund.
    12. Patrick Slovik & Boris Cournède, 2011. "Macroeconomic Impact of Basel III," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 844, OECD Publishing.
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    Cited by:

    1. Jarko Fidrmuc & Philipp Schreiber & Martin Siddiqui, 2015. "The Transmission of Bank Funding to Corporate Loans: Deleveraging in Germany," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 26(3), pages 581-597, July.
    2. Hartmann-Wendels, Thomas, 2012. "Regulatorische Folgen der Finanzkrisen: Auswirkungen auf die Leasing-Branche," Leasing - Wissenschaft & Praxis, Universität zu Köln, Forschungsinstitut für Leasing, vol. 10(1), pages 3-88.
    3. repec:nbp:nbpbik:v:48:y:2017:i:2:p:119-148 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Schaetzle, Dominik, 2012. "Die Auswirkungen der neuen Eigenkapitalanforderungen nach Basel III: Eine Analyse empirischer Studien," Arbeitspapiere 124, University of Münster, Institute for Cooperatives.
    5. Noss, Joseph & Toffano, Priscilla, 2014. "Estimating the impact of changes in aggregate bank capital requirements during an upswing," Bank of England working papers 494, Bank of England.
    6. repec:nbb:reswpp:201606-306 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. M. Birn & M. Dietsch & D. Durant, 2017. "How to reach all Basel requirements at the same time?," Débats économiques et financiers 28, Banque de France.
    8. Mario Mustilli & Francesco Campanella & Eugenio D’Angelo, 2017. "Basel III and Credit Crunch: An Empirical Test with Focus on Europe," Journal of Applied Finance & Banking, SCIENPRESS Ltd, vol. 7(3), pages 1-3.
    9. Sebastian Krug & Matthias Lengnick & Hans-Werner Wohltmann, 2014. "The impact of Basel III on financial (in)stability: an agent-based credit network approach," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(12), pages 1917-1932, December.
    10. repec:wsi:afexxx:v:12:y:2017:i:02:n:s2010495217500087 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. repec:prg:jnlcfu:v:2017:y:2017:i:4:id:504:p:41-56 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Noss, Joseph & Toffano, Priscilla, 2016. "Estimating the impact of changes in aggregate bank capital requirements on lending and growth during an upswing," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 15-27.
    13. Pierluigi Bologna, 2015. "Structural Funding and Bank Failures," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 47(1), pages 81-113, February.
    14. repec:eee:jbfina:v:87:y:2018:i:c:p:87-101 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Gavalas, Dimitris, 2015. "How do banks perform under Basel III? Tracing lending rates and loan quantity," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 21-37.
    16. Alexandra Schindele & Andrea Szczesny, 2016. "The impact of Basel II on the debt costs of German SMEs," Journal of Business Economics, Springer, vol. 86(3), pages 197-227, April.
    17. repec:eee:ecmode:v:67:y:2017:i:c:p:285-293 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Schmaltz, Christian & Pokutta, Sebastian & Heidorn, Thomas & Andrae, Silvio, 2014. "How to make regulators and shareholders happy under Basel III," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 311-325.
    19. Stijn Ferrari & Mara Pirovano & Pablo Rovira Kaltwasser, 2016. "Systemic risk, macroprudential policy, bank capital requirements, real estate," Working Paper Research 306, National Bank of Belgium.
    20. Office of Financial Research (ed.), 2013. "Office of Financial Research 2013 Annual Report," Reports, Office of Financial Research, US Department of the Treasury, number 13-2.


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