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Bilateral Financial Linkages and Global Imbalances; a View on The Eve of the Financial Crisis


  • Gian M Milesi-Ferretti
  • Natalia T. Tamirisa
  • Francesco Strobbe


We present a novel and comprehensive dataset of bilateral gross and net external positions in various financial instruments for the main advanced and emerging economies and regions, designed to improve our understanding of cross-border financial linkages. The data show no strong correspondence between country or region pairs with the largest gross versus net external positions, and the importance of international financial centers, including offshore centers, in intermediating financial flows. We also highlight some important data gaps in completing a network of cross-border holdings, related to the limited available information on the size and geographical pattern of external claims and liabilities of offshore centers, oil exporters, and other mostly emerging markets.

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  • Gian M Milesi-Ferretti & Natalia T. Tamirisa & Francesco Strobbe, 2010. "Bilateral Financial Linkages and Global Imbalances; a View on The Eve of the Financial Crisis," IMF Working Papers 10/257, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:10/257

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Daude, Christian & Fratzscher, Marcel, 2008. "The pecking order of cross-border investment," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 94-119, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Didier, Tatiana & Llovet, Ruth & Schmukler, Sergio L., 2017. "International financial integration of East Asia and Pacific," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 52-66.
    2. R. S.J. Koijen & F. Koulischer & B. Nguyen & M. Yogo, 2016. "Quantitative Easing in the Euro Area: The Dynamics of Risk Exposures and the Impact on Asset Prices," Working papers 601, Banque de France.
    3. Bénétrix, Agustin S. & Lane, Philip R. & Shambaugh, Jay C., 2015. "International currency exposures, valuation effects and the global financial crisis," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(S1), pages 98-109.
    4. Gabriel Zucman, 2013. "The Missing Wealth of Nations: Are Europe and the U.S. net Debtors or net Creditors?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 128(3), pages 1321-1364.
    5. Bouvatier, Vincent & Delatte, Anne-Laure, 2015. "Waves of international banking integration: A tale of regional differences," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 354-373.
    6. Emilio Espino & Julian Kozlowski & Juan M. Sánchez, 2013. "Regionalization vs. globalization," Working Papers 2013-002, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    7. Carmela D’Avino, 2016. "US banks’ international balance sheet linkages: a data survey," Journal of Financial Economic Policy, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 8(4), pages 514-531, November.
    8. Gourinchas, Pierre-Olivier & Rey, Hélène, 2014. "External Adjustment, Global Imbalances, Valuation Effects," Handbook of International Economics, Elsevier.
    9. Gourinchas, Pierre-Olivier & Rey, Hélène & Truempler, Kai, 2012. "The financial crisis and the geography of wealth transfers," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(2), pages 266-283.
    10. Kevin Hjortshøj O’Rourke, 2015. "Economic Impossibilities For Our Granchildren?," Oxford University Economic and Social History Series _139, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
    11. Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2014. "A Decade of Debt," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series,in: Miguel Fuentes D. & Claudio E. Raddatz & Carmen M. Reinhart (ed.), Capital Mobility and Monetary Policy, edition 1, volume 18, chapter 4, pages 97-135 Central Bank of Chile.
    12. Claudio Borio & Piti Disyatat, 2015. "Capital flows and the current account: Taking financing (more) seriously," BIS Working Papers 525, Bank for International Settlements.
    13. Eswar S. Prasad, 2011. "Role reversal in global finance," Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pages 339-390.
    14. Irving Fisher Committee, 2017. "Assessing international capital flows after the crisis," IFC Bulletins, Bank for International Settlements, number 42.
    15. Hideaki Hirata & M. Ayhan Kose & Chris Otrok, "undated". "Regionalization vs. Globalization," Working Paper 164456, Harvard University OpenScholar.
    16. Kalemli-Ozcan, Sebnem & Papaioannou, Elias & Perri, Fabrizio, 2013. "Global banks and crisis transmission," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(2), pages 495-510.
    17. Barend de Beer, 2017. "South Africa's experience with capital flows since the financial crisis - from measurement to analysis," IFC Bulletins chapters,in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Assessing international capital flows after the crisis, volume 42 Bank for International Settlements.
    18. Spelta, Alessandro & Araújo, Tanya, 2012. "The topology of cross-border exposures: Beyond the minimal spanning tree approach," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 391(22), pages 5572-5583.
    19. Lane, Philip R., 2013. "Capital Flows in the Euro Area," CEPR Discussion Papers 9493, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    20. Borio, Claudio, 2016. "On the centrality of the current account in international economics," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 266-274.
    21. Hobza, Alexandr & Zeugner, Stefan, 2014. "Current accounts and financial flows in the euro area," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(PB), pages 291-313.
    22. Carvalho, Daniel & Fidora, Michael, 2015. "Capital inflows and euro area long-term interest rates," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 186-204.
    23. van Ewijk, Saskia E. & Arnold, Ivo J.M., 2015. "Financial integration in the euro area: Pro-cyclical effects and economic convergence," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 335-342.
    24. Aitor Erce, 2014. "Cross‐Border Banking, Externalities And Sovereign Distress: Does The Euro Need A Common Banking Authority?," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(3), pages 188-203, July.
    25. International Monetary Fund, 2010. "European Financial Linkages; A New Look At Imbalances," IMF Working Papers 10/295, International Monetary Fund.

    More about this item


    Foreign exchange; Global imbalances; International financial integration; claims; fdi; portfolio investment; foreign exchange reserves;

    JEL classification:

    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
    • F32 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Current Account Adjustment; Short-term Capital Movements

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