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Are Capital Controls Effective in the 21st Century? the Recent Experience of Colombia


  • Benedict J. Clements
  • Herman Kamil


This paper assesses the effects of capital controls imposed in Colombia in 2007 on capital flows and exchange rate dynamics. The results suggest that the controls were successful in reducing external borrowing, but had no statistically significant impact on the volume of non- FDI flows as a whole. We find no evidence that restrictions to capital mobility moderated the appreciation of Colombia's currency, or increased the degree of independence of monetary policy. We also find that controls have significantly increased the volatility of the exchange rate. Additional research is needed to assess the effects of capital controls on financial stability.

Suggested Citation

  • Benedict J. Clements & Herman Kamil, 2009. "Are Capital Controls Effective in the 21st Century? the Recent Experience of Colombia," IMF Working Papers 09/30, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:09/30

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Carolina Gómez Restrepo & Diego Jara Pinzón & Andrés Murcia Pabón, 2006. "Impacto De Las Operaciones De Los Fondos De Pensiones Obligatorias En Los Mercados Financieros Colombianos," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 002806, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
    2. Ayhan Kose & Kenneth Rogoff & Eswar S Prasad & Shang-Jin Wei, 2003. "Effects of Financial Globalization on Developing Countries; Some Empirical Evidence," IMF Occasional Papers 220, International Monetary Fund.
    3. Braumoeller, Bear F., 2004. "Hypothesis Testing and Multiplicative Interaction Terms," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 58(04), pages 807-820, October.
    4. Sebastian Edwards & Roberto Rigobon, 2005. "Capital Controls, Exchange Rate Volatility and External Vulnerability," NBER Working Papers 11434, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Nicolas Magud & Carmen M. Reinhart, 2007. "Capital Controls: An Evaluation," NBER Chapters,in: Capital Controls and Capital Flows in Emerging Economies: Policies, Practices and Consequences, pages 645-674 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Montiel, Peter & Reinhart, Carmen M., 1999. "Do capital controls and macroeconomic policies influence the volume and composition of capital flows? Evidence from the 1990s," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 619-635, August.
    7. De Gregorio, Jose & Edwards, Sebastian & Valdes, Rodrigo O., 2000. "Controls on capital inflows: do they work?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 59-83, October.
    8. José Darío Uribe, 2005. "Capital controls and foreign exchange market intervention in Colombia," BIS Papers chapters,in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Globalisation and monetary policy in emerging markets, volume 23, pages 128-40 Bank for International Settlements.
    9. Cardenas, Mauricio & Barrera, Felipe, 1997. "On the effectiveness of capital controls: The experience of Colombia during the 1990s," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 27-57, October.
    10. Kristin J. Forbes, 2007. "The Microeconomic Evidence on Capital Controls: No Free Lunch," NBER Chapters,in: Capital Controls and Capital Flows in Emerging Economies: Policies, Practices and Consequences, pages 171-202 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Antonio David, 2009. "Are price-based capital account regulations effective in developing countries?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(26), pages 3375-3388.
    12. Herman Kamil, 2008. "Is Central Bank Intervention Effective Under Inflation Targeting Regimes? The Case of Colombia," IMF Working Papers 08/88, International Monetary Fund.
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    Cited by:

    1. Raúl Morales, 2011. "Situación actual de los sistemas de pago de bajo valor en América Latina y el Caribe," Boletín, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos, vol. 0(3), pages 107-116, Julio-sep.
    2. Jonathan D. Ostry & Atish R. Ghosh & Karl Habermeier & Luc Laeven & Marcos Chamon & Mahvash S. Qureshi & Annamaria Kokenyne, 2011. "Gestión de la entrada de capitales: ¿Qué herramientas usar?," Boletín, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos, vol. 0(3), pages 138-174, Julio-sep.
    3. Miguel Urrutia & Marc Hofstetter & Franz Hamann, 2014. "Inflation Targeting in Colombia, 2002-2012," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 6394, Inter-American Development Bank.
    4. Eduardo Levy Yeyati & Jimena Zuniga, 2015. "Varieties of Capital Flows: What Do We Know?," CID Working Papers 296, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
    5. Matthew S. Yiu, 2011. "The Effect of Capital Flow Management Measures in Five Asian Economies on the Foreign Exchange Market," Working Papers 412011, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
    6. G. Terrier & Rodrigo O. Valdes & Camilo E Tovar Mora & Jorge A Chan-Lau & Carlos Fernandez Valdovinos & Mercedes Garcia-Escribano & Carlos I. Medeiros & Man-Keung Tang & Mercedes Vera Martin & W. Chri, 2011. "Policy Instruments to Lean Against the Wind in Latin America," IMF Working Papers 11/159, International Monetary Fund.
    7. Bruno Coelho & Kevin P. Gallagher, 2013. "The effectiveness of capital controls: evidence from Colombia and Thailand," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(3), pages 386-403, May.
    8. Abhakorn, Pongrapeeporn & Tantisantiwong, Nongnuch, 2012. "A reexamination of capital controls’ effectiveness: Recent experience of Thailand," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 26-38.
    9. Nicolas Magud & Carmen Reinhart & Kenneth Rogoff, 2005. "Capital Controls: Myth and Reality A Portfolio Balance Approach to Capital Controls," University of Oregon Economics Department Working Papers 2006-10, University of Oregon Economics Department.
    10. Jean François Clevy Aguilar, 2011. "Operatoria de política monetaria y regulación macroprudencial," Boletín, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos, vol. 0(3), pages 117-125, Julio-sep.
    11. Christian Rohe & Matthias Hartermann, 2015. "The role of external shocks for monetary policy in Colombia and Brazil: A Bayesian SVAR analysis," CQE Working Papers 4215, Center for Quantitative Economics (CQE), University of Muenster.
    12. Bruno Coelho & Kevin Gallagher, 2010. "Capital Controls and 21st Century Financial Crises: Evidence from Colombia and Thailand," Working Papers wp213, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
    13. Jean-Claude Trichet, 2011. "Cómo lograr el máximo crecimiento a largo plazo," Boletín, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos, vol. 0(3), pages 126-137, Julio-sep.
    14. repec:ind:icrier:257 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Ostry, Jonathan D. & Ghosh, Atish R. & Chamon, Marcos & Qureshi, Mahvash S., 2012. "Tools for managing financial-stability risks from capital inflows," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(2), pages 407-421.
    16. Taro Esaka & Shinji Takagi, 2013. "Testing the Effectiveness of Market-Based Controls: Evidence From the Experience of Japan With Short-Term Capital Flows in the 1970s," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(1), pages 45-69, February.
    17. Concha, Alvaro & Galindo, Arturo José & Vasquez, Diego, 2011. "An assessment of another decade of capital controls in Colombia: 1998–2008," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 51(4), pages 319-338.
    18. Vanessa Da Costa Val Munhoz & Gilberto Libânio, 2011. "Revisitando Os Controles De Capitais:Notas Teóricas E Evidências Empíricas," Anais do XXXVIII Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 38th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 202, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    19. Ahmed, Shaghil & Zlate, Andrei, 2014. "Capital flows to emerging market economies: A brave new world?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(PB), pages 221-248.

    More about this item


    Economic models; Emerging markets; Exchange rate appreciation; Exchange rate developments; Colombia; Capital inflows; Capital flows; Capital controls; Exchange Rate Models; exchange rate; exchange rates;

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