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Causes, Benefits, and Risks of Business Tax Incentives

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  • Alexander D Klemm

Abstract

This paper provides an updated overview of tax incentives for business investment. It begins by noting that tax competition is likely to be a major force driving countries' tax reforms, and discusses tax incentives as a possible response to this. This is complemented by other arguments for and against tax incentives, and by an illustrative analysis of different incentives using effective tax rates. Findings from the empirical literature on tax incentives are also presented. Based on the overview of theoretical and empirical findings, the paper then suggests a matrix of criteria to determine the usefulness of different tax incentives depending on a country's circumstances.

Suggested Citation

  • Alexander D Klemm, 2009. "Causes, Benefits, and Risks of Business Tax Incentives," IMF Working Papers 09/21, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:09/21
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Devereux, Michael P & Griffith, Rachel, 2003. "Evaluating Tax Policy for Location Decisions," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 10(2), pages 107-126, March.
    2. Haufler, Andreas & Schjelderup, Guttorm, 2000. "Corporate Tax Systems and Cross Country Profit Shifting," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 52(2), pages 306-325, April.
    3. Bloom, Nick & Griffith, Rachel & Van Reenen, John, 2002. "Do R&D tax credits work? Evidence from a panel of countries 1979-1997," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1), pages 1-31, July.
    4. Auerbach, Alan J & Hines, James R, Jr, 1988. "Investment Tax Incentives and Frequent Tax Reforms," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(2), pages 211-216, May.
    5. Alexander D Klemm, 2008. "Effective Average Tax Rates for Permanent Investment," IMF Working Papers 08/56, International Monetary Fund.
    6. de Mooij, Ruud A & Ederveen, Sjef, 2003. "Taxation and Foreign Direct Investment: A Synthesis of Empirical Research," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 10(6), pages 673-693, November.
    7. Bradford, David F., 1981. "The incidence and allocation effects of a tax on corporate distributions," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 1-22, February.
    8. Hines, James R. Jr., 1999. "Lessons From Behavioral Responses to International Taxation," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 52(2), pages 305-322, June.
    9. Bucovetsky, Sam & Wilson, John Douglas, 1991. "Tax competition with two tax instruments," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 333-350, November.
    10. Fuest, Clemens & Huber, Bernd & Mintz, Jack, 2005. "Capital Mobility and Tax Competition," Foundations and Trends(R) in Microeconomics, now publishers, vol. 1(1), pages 1-62, December.
    11. Wilson, John Douglas, 1999. "Theories of Tax Competition," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 52(2), pages 269-304, June.
    12. Alexander D Klemm & Dennis P Botman & Reza Baqir, 2008. "Investment Incentives and Effective Tax Rates in the Philippines; A Comparison With Neighboring Countries," IMF Working Papers 08/207, International Monetary Fund.
    13. Baldwin, Richard E. & Krugman, Paul, 2004. "Agglomeration, integration and tax harmonisation," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 1-23, February.
    14. repec:taf:rjapxx:v:15:y:2010:i:2:p:166-191 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Janeba, Eckhard & Smart, Michael, 2003. "Is Targeted Tax Competition Less Harmful Than Its Remedies?," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 10(3), pages 259-280, May.
    16. Mintz, Jack M, 1990. "Corporate Tax Holidays and Investment," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 4(1), pages 81-102, January.
    17. Alexander Klemm, 2004. "A minimum rate without a common base?," Intereconomics: Review of European Economic Policy, Springer;German National Library of Economics;Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), vol. 39(4), pages 186-189, July.
    18. Clemens Fuest & Bernd Huber & Jack Mintz, 2003. "Capital Mobility and Tax Competition: A Survey," CESifo Working Paper Series 956, CESifo Group Munich.
    19. Hines, James R. Jr., 1999. "Lessons from Behavioral Responses to International Taxation," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 52(n. 2), pages 305-22, June.
    20. Wilson, John Douglas, 1999. "Theories of Tax Competition," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 52(n. 2), pages 269-304, June.
    21. Mario Mansour & Michael Keen, 2009. "Revenue Mobilization in Sub-Saharan Africa; Challenges from Globalization," IMF Working Papers 09/157, International Monetary Fund.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Bird, Richard M. & Zolt, Eric M., 2011. "Dual Income Taxation: A Promising Path to Tax Reform for Developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(10), pages 1691-1703.
    2. Ligia Alba Melo-Becerra & Javier Ávila Mahecha & Jorge Enrique Ramos-Forero, 2017. "The effect of corporate taxes on investment: Evidence from the Colombian firms," Borradores de Economia 1001, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    3. Shahid Yusuf & Kaoru Nabeshima, 2009. "Growth through Innovation : An Industrial Strategy for Shanghai," World Bank Other Operational Studies 18613, The World Bank.
    4. Danielova, Anna & Sarkar, Sudipto, 2011. "The effect of leverage on the tax-cut versus investment-subsidy argument," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 123-129.
    5. Alexander Klemm & Stefan Parys, 2012. "Empirical evidence on the effects of tax incentives," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 19(3), pages 393-423, June.
    6. Evers, Lisa & Spengel, Christoph, 2014. "Effective tax rates under IP tax planning," ZEW Discussion Papers 14-111, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    7. Lisa Evers & Helen Miller & Christoph Spengel, 2015. "Intellectual property box regimes: effective tax rates and tax policy considerations," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 22(3), pages 502-530, June.
    8. Ruben V Atoyan, 2010. "Beyond the Crisis; Revisiting Emerging Europe’s Growth Model," IMF Working Papers 10/92, International Monetary Fund.
    9. Bergner, Sören Martin & Bräutigam, Rainer & Evers, Maria Theresia & Spengel, Christoph, 2017. "The use of SME tax incentives in the European Union," ZEW Discussion Papers 17-006, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    10. Suzuki, Masaaki, 2014. "Corporate effective tax rates in Asian countries," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 1-17.
    11. S. Abbas & Alexander Klemm, 2013. "A partial race to the bottom: corporate tax developments in emerging and developing economies," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 20(4), pages 596-617, August.
    12. Ruben Atoyan, 2010. "Beyond the crisis: revisiting emerging Europe’s growth model," Financial Theory and Practice, Institute of Public Finance, vol. 34(4), pages 329-356.
    13. Masaaki Suzuki, 2013. "Corporate Effective Tax Rates in Asian Countries," KIER Working Papers 875, Kyoto University, Institute of Economic Research.
    14. Marco Carreras & Purnachandar Dachapalli & Giulia Mascagni, 2017. "Effective corporate tax burden and firm size in South Africa: A firm-level analysis," WIDER Working Paper Series 162, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    15. Adriana Giurgiu, 2012. "Investment Incentives and the Global Competition for Capital – By K.P. Thomas," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(1), pages 190-190, January.
    16. James Alm & Mir Ahmad Khan, 2015. "Assessing and Reforming Enterprise Taxation in Pakistan," Working Papers 1513, Tulane University, Department of Economics.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Foreign direct investment; Tax incentives; Tax policy; Tax competition; effective tax rates; tax system; tax rates; taxation;

    JEL classification:

    • H25 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Business Taxes and Subsidies
    • H87 - Public Economics - - Miscellaneous Issues - - - International Fiscal Issues; International Public Goods

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