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Financial Intermediation, Competition, and Risk; A General Equilibrium Exposition

  • Gianni De Nicoló
  • Marcella Lucchetta

We study a simple general equilibrium model in which investment in a risky technology is subject to moral hazard and banks can extract market power rents. We show that more bank competition results in lower economy-wide risk, lower bank capital ratios, more efficient production plans and Pareto-ranked real allocations. Perfect competition supports a second best allocation and optimal levels of bank risk and capitalization. These results are at variance with those obtained by a large literature that has studied a similar environment in partial equilibrium. Importantly, they are empirically relevant, and demonstrate the need of general equilibrium modeling to design financial policies aimed at attaining socially optimal levels of systemic risk in the economy.

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Paper provided by International Monetary Fund in its series IMF Working Papers with number 09/105.

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Length: 29
Date of creation: 01 May 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:09/105
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  1. Repullo, Rafael, 2003. "Capital Requirements, Market Power and Risk-Taking in Banking," CEPR Discussion Papers 3721, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. John Boyd & Gianni De Nicolò & Elena Loukoianova, 2010. "Banking Crises and Crisis Dating: Theory and Evidence," CESifo Working Paper Series 3134, CESifo Group Munich.
  3. Boyd, John H. & Prescott, Edward C., 1986. "Financial intermediary-coalitions," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 211-232, April.
  4. Matutes, Carmen & Vives, Xavier, 1996. "Competition for Deposits, Fragility, and Insurance," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 184-216, April.
  5. Cordella, Tito & Levy Yeyati, Eduardo, 1998. "Financial Opening, Deposit Insurance and Risk in a Model of Banking Competition," CEPR Discussion Papers 1939, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Gianni De Nicoló & Elena Loukoianova, 2007. "Bank Ownership, Market Structure and Risk," IMF Working Papers 07/215, International Monetary Fund.
  7. John H. Boyd & Gianni De Nicolã, 2005. "The Theory of Bank Risk Taking and Competition Revisited," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(3), pages 1329-1343, 06.
  8. Martinez-Miera, David & Repullo, Rafael, 2008. "Does Competition Reduce the Risk of Bank Failure?," CEPR Discussion Papers 6669, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  9. Nicola Cetorelli, 2001. "Banking Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Growth: International Evidence from Industry Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(2), pages 617-648, 04.
  10. Holmström, Bengt & Tirole, Jean, 1994. "Financial Intermediation, Loanable Funds and the Real Sector," IDEI Working Papers 40, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
  11. Nicola Cetorelli & Philip Strahan, 2004. "Finance as a barrier to entry: bank competition and industry structure in local U.S. markets," Working Paper Series WP-04-04, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  12. Kevin C. Murdock & Thomas F. Hellmann & Joseph E. Stiglitz, 2000. "Liberalization, Moral Hazard in Banking, and Prudential Regulation: Are Capital Requirements Enough?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(1), pages 147-165, March.
  13. Franklin Allen & Douglas Gale, 2004. "Financial Intermediaries and Markets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 72(4), pages 1023-1061, 07.
  14. Boot, Arnoud W A & Thakor, Anjan V, 1997. "Financial System Architecture," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(3), pages 693-733.
  15. Boyd, John H. & Chang, Chun & Smith, Bruce D., 2002. "Deposit insurance: a reconsideration," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(6), pages 1235-1260, September.
  16. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Levine, Ross, 2006. "Bank concentration, competition, and crises: First results," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 1581-1603, May.
  17. Keeley, Michael C, 1990. "Deposit Insurance, Risk, and Market Power in Banking," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(5), pages 1183-1200, December.
  18. Diamond, Douglas W, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414, July.
  19. Jayaratne, Jith & Strahan, Philip E, 1998. "Entry Restrictions, Industry Evolution, and Dynamic Efficiency: Evidence from Commercial Banking," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 41(1), pages 239-73, April.
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