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Financial Intermediation, Competition, and Risk; A General Equilibrium Exposition

Author

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  • Gianni De Nicolo
  • Marcella Lucchetta

Abstract

We study a simple general equilibrium model in which investment in a risky technology is subject to moral hazard and banks can extract market power rents. We show that more bank competition results in lower economy-wide risk, lower bank capital ratios, more efficient production plans and Pareto-ranked real allocations. Perfect competition supports a second best allocation and optimal levels of bank risk and capitalization. These results are at variance with those obtained by a large literature that has studied a similar environment in partial equilibrium. Importantly, they are empirically relevant, and demonstrate the need of general equilibrium modeling to design financial policies aimed at attaining socially optimal levels of systemic risk in the economy.

Suggested Citation

  • Gianni De Nicolo & Marcella Lucchetta, 2009. "Financial Intermediation, Competition, and Risk; A General Equilibrium Exposition," IMF Working Papers 09/105, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:09/105
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Repullo, Rafael, 2004. "Capital requirements, market power, and risk-taking in banking," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 156-182, April.
    2. Boyd, John H. & Chang, Chun & Smith, Bruce D., 2002. "Deposit insurance: a reconsideration," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(6), pages 1235-1260, September.
    3. Jayaratne, Jith & Strahan, Philip E, 1998. "Entry Restrictions, Industry Evolution, and Dynamic Efficiency: Evidence from Commercial Banking," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 41(1), pages 239-273, April.
    4. Bengt Holmstrom & Jean Tirole, 1997. "Financial Intermediation, Loanable Funds, and The Real Sector," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(3), pages 663-691.
    5. Nicola Cetorelli & Philip E. Strahan, 2006. "Finance as a Barrier to Entry: Bank Competition and Industry Structure in Local U.S. Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(1), pages 437-461, February.
    6. Franklin Allen & Douglas Gale, 2004. "Financial Intermediaries and Markets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 72(4), pages 1023-1061, July.
    7. Gianni De Nicolo & Elena Loukoianova, 2007. "Bank Ownership, Market Structure and Risk," IMF Working Papers 07/215, International Monetary Fund.
    8. Boot, Arnoud W A & Thakor, Anjan V, 1997. "Financial System Architecture," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(3), pages 693-733.
    9. Nicola Cetorelli, 2001. "Banking Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Growth: International Evidence from Industry Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(2), pages 617-648, April.
    10. Boyd, John H. & Prescott, Edward C., 1986. "Financial intermediary-coalitions," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 211-232, April.
    11. David Martinez-Miera & Rafael Repullo, 2010. "Does Competition Reduce the Risk of Bank Failure?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(10), pages 3638-3664, October.
    12. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Levine, Ross, 2006. "Bank concentration, competition, and crises: First results," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 1581-1603, May.
    13. Elena Loukoianova & Gianni De Nicolo & John H. Boyd, 2009. "Banking Crises and Crisis Dating; Theory and Evidence," IMF Working Papers 09/141, International Monetary Fund.
    14. Cordella, Tito & Yeyati, Eduardo Levy, 2002. "Financial opening, deposit insurance, and risk in a model of banking competition," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 471-485, March.
    15. Douglas W. Diamond, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414.
    16. Keeley, Michael C, 1990. "Deposit Insurance, Risk, and Market Power in Banking," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(5), pages 1183-1200, December.
    17. John H. Boyd & Gianni De Nicolã, 2005. "The Theory of Bank Risk Taking and Competition Revisited," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(3), pages 1329-1343, June.
    18. Matutes, Carmen & Vives, Xavier, 1996. "Competition for Deposits, Fragility, and Insurance," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 184-216, April.
    19. Kevin C. Murdock & Thomas F. Hellmann & Joseph E. Stiglitz, 2000. "Liberalization, Moral Hazard in Banking, and Prudential Regulation: Are Capital Requirements Enough?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(1), pages 147-165, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Elena Loukoianova & Gianni De Nicolo & John H. Boyd, 2009. "Banking Crises and Crisis Dating; Theory and Evidence," IMF Working Papers 09/141, International Monetary Fund.
    2. repec:seb:journl:v:15:y:2017:i:2:p:175-208 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Samantas, Ioannis, 2013. "Bank competition and financial (in)stability in Europe: A sensitivity analysis," MPRA Paper 51621, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Shijaku, Gerti, 2017. "Bank Stability and Competition: Evidence from Albanian Banking Market," MPRA Paper 79891, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Marcella Lucchetta & Gianni De Nicolo, 2011. "Bank Competition and Financial Stability; A General Equilibrium Exposition," IMF Working Papers 11/295, International Monetary Fund.
    6. repec:eee:finsta:v:33:y:2017:i:c:p:273-284 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Rodolphe Dos Santos Ferreira & Teresa Lloyd-Braga & Leonor Modesto, 2016. "Could competition always raise the risk of bank failure?," Working Papers of BETA 2016-27, Bureau d'Economie Théorique et Appliquée, UDS, Strasbourg.
    8. repec:eee:finana:v:54:y:2017:i:c:p:39-53 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Fiordelisi, Franco & Mare, Davide Salvatore, 2014. "Competition and financial stability in European cooperative banks," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 1-16.
    10. Shijaku, Gerti, 2016. "Does bank competition affect bank stability after the global financial crisis?," MPRA Paper 79084, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Douglas Gale, 2010. "The Effects of Bank Capital on Lending: What Do We Know, and What Does It Mean?," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 6(34), pages 187-204, December.
    12. ap Gwilym, Rhys & Kanas, Angelos & Molyneux, Philip, 2013. "U.S. prompt corrective action and bank risk," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 239-257.
    13. Douglas Gale, 2015. "Regulation and Sausages," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 83, pages 1-26, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Competition; Corporate sector; Banking sector; Banks; Capital; Borrowing; Economic models; Financial risk; Financial intermediation; Risk management; Investment; General Equilibrium; Bank Competition; Market Power Rents; Risk; moral hazard; banking; deposit insurance; bank risk; bank capitalization;

    JEL classification:

    • D5 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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