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Informality and Bank Credit; Evidence from Firm-Level Data

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  • Junko Koeda
  • Era Dabla-Norris

Abstract

The paper relies on a firm-level data on transition economies to examine the relationship between informality and bank credit. We find evidence that informality is robustly and significantly associated with lower access to and use of bank credit. We also find that higher tax compliance costs reduce firms' reliance on bank credit, while a stronger quality of the legal environment is associated with higher access to credit even for financially opaque informal firms. An interactive term between a country-wide measure of tax compliance costs and the level of informal activity is negative and significant, suggesting that the negative association between informality and bank credit is stronger in countries with weak tax administration.

Suggested Citation

  • Junko Koeda & Era Dabla-Norris, 2008. "Informality and Bank Credit; Evidence from Firm-Level Data," IMF Working Papers 08/94, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:08/94
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. John McMillan & Christopher Woodruff, 1999. "Interfirm Relationships and Informal Credit in Vietnam," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(4), pages 1285-1320.
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    7. Levine, Ross, 2005. "Finance and Growth: Theory and Evidence," Handbook of Economic Growth,in: Philippe Aghion & Steven Durlauf (ed.), Handbook of Economic Growth, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 12, pages 865-934 Elsevier.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Kobil Ruziev & Don Webber, 2017. "SMEs access to formal finance in post-communist economies: Do institutional structure and political connectedness matter?," Working Papers 20171701, Department of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Bristol Business School, University of the West of England, Bristol.
    2. Catalina Granda Carvajal, 2015. "Informality and macroeconomic volatility: do credit constraints matter?," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 42(6), pages 1095-1111, November.
    3. Muravyev, Alexander & Talavera, Oleksandr & Schäfer, Dorothea, 2009. "Entrepreneurs' gender and financial constraints: Evidence from international data," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 270-286, June.
    4. Madestam, Andreas, 2014. "Informal finance: A theory of moneylenders," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 157-174.
    5. Fujin Zhou & Remco Oostendorp, 2014. "Measuring True Sales and Underreporting with Matched Firm-Level Survey and Tax Office Data," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 96(3), pages 563-576, July.
    6. repec:wsi:serxxx:v:62:y:2017:i:05:n:s0217590815500794 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Cristina Fernández & Leonardo Villar, 2017. "Taxonomía de la informalidad en América Latina," WORKING PAPERS SERIES. DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO 015814, FEDESARROLLO.
    8. Ceyhun Elgin & Oguz Oztunali, 2013. "Institutions, Informal Economy and Economic Development," Working Papers 2013/03, Bogazici University, Department of Economics.
    9. Mitra, Shalini, 2014. "Tax Evasion, Tax Policies and the Role Played by Financial Markets," MPRA Paper 58977, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Catalina Granda & Franz Hamann, 2015. "Informality, Saving and Wealth Inequality," Borradores de Economia 873, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    11. Gutiérrez, Emilio & Teshima, Kensuke, 2016. "Does household financial access facilitate law compliance? Evidence from Mexico," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 149(C), pages 120-124.
    12. Nguyen, Thi Nhung & Gan, Christopher & Hu, Baiding, 2015. "An empirical analysis of credit accessibility of small and medium sized enterprises in Vietnam," MPRA Paper 81911, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2015.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Economic models; Bank credit; Transition economies; Tax administration; informality; business environment; Transition countries; dummy variable; working capital; survey; probability;

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