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The Choice of Monetary and Exchange Rate Arrangements for a Small, Open, Low-Income Economy; The Case of Sao tome and Principe

  • Jian-Ye Wang
  • Nisreen H. Farhan
  • Amar Shanghavi
  • Márcio Valério Ronci
  • Misa Takebe
Registered author(s):

    This paper assesses São Tomé and Príncipe's monetary and exchange rate arrangements in light of the country's monetary history and the relevant experience of comparable countries in Africa. The study highlights several structural characteristics of São Tomé and Príncipe including its very small size, high degree of openness, extensive use of foreign currencies, and inflexible product and factor markets in the consideration of an appropriate monetary and exchange regime. Firmly anchored currency arrangements, defined in this paper to include memberships in monetary unions or hard pegs, are found to be preferable to the status quo of a managed float. The paper applies statistical methods and takes into account other factors to identify the appropriate anchor currency. It stresses that fiscal discipline and prudent debt management are the main prerequisites for a firmly anchored currency arrangement.

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    Paper provided by International Monetary Fund in its series IMF Working Papers with number 08/118.

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    Length: 37
    Date of creation: 01 May 2008
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:08/118
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    1. Mathias Hoffmann, 2007. "Fixed versus Flexible Exchange Rates: Evidence from Developing Countries," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 74(295), pages 425-449, 08.
    2. Owen F. Humpage & Jean M. McIntire, 1995. "An introduction to currency boards," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, issue Q II, pages 2-11.
    3. Fielding, David & Lee, Kevin & Shields, Kalvinder, 2004. "The Characteristics of Macroeconomic Shocks in the CFA Franc Zone," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    4. Saab, Samer & Vacher, Jerome, 2007. "Banking Sector Integration and Competition in CEMAC," MPRA Paper 2011, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Bayoumi, Tamim & Ostry, Jonathan D, 1997. "Macroeconomic Shocks and Trade Flows within Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for Optimum Currency Arrangements," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 6(3), pages 412-44, October.
    6. Amadou N. R. Sy, 2006. "Financial Integration in the West African Economic and Monetary Union," IMF Working Papers 06/214, International Monetary Fund.
    7. Guillaumont, Patrick & Guillaumont, Sylviane & Plane, Patrick, 1988. "Participating in African monetary unions: An alternative evaluation," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 569-576, May.
    8. Katrin Elborgh-Woytek & Julian Berengaut, 2006. "Beauty Queens and Wallflowers; Currency Unions in the Middle East and Central Asia," IMF Working Papers 06/226, International Monetary Fund.
    9. Devarajan, Shantayanan & de Melo, Jaime, 1987. "Evaluating participation in African monetary unions: A statistical analysis of the CFA Zones," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 483-496, April.
    10. Elbadawi, Ibrahim & Majd, Nader, 1992. "Fixed parity of the exchange rate and economic performance in the CFA zone : a comparative study," Policy Research Working Paper Series 830, The World Bank.
    11. Ilan Goldfajn & Gino Olivares, 2000. "Is adopting Full Dollarization the solution? Looking at the evidence," Textos para discussão 416, Department of Economics PUC-Rio (Brazil).
    12. Ugo Fasano-Filho & Andrea Schaechter, 2003. "Monetary Union Among Member Countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council," IMF Occasional Papers 223, International Monetary Fund.
    13. Iyabo Masha & Leighton Harris & Jian-Ye Wang & Kazuko Shirono, 2007. "The Common Monetary Area in Southern Africa; Shocks, Adjustment, and Policy Challenges," IMF Working Papers 07/158, International Monetary Fund.
    14. Sachs, Jeffrey & Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1992. "Fiscal Federalism and Optimum Currency Areas: Evidence for Europe from the United States," CEPR Discussion Papers 632, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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