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Financial Reforms, Financial Openness, and Corporate Borrowing; International Evidence


  • Enrica Detragiache
  • Gianni De Nicolo
  • Senay Agca


We study how credit market deregulation and increased international financial openness have changed corporate borrowing. The evidence comes from a large panel of publicly traded firms in 38 countries over the period 1994-2002. Reforms are measured with a comprehensive new index that tracks six separate dimensions. We find that these transformations have increased leverage and lengthened debt maturity in advanced economies, as expected, suggesting that in these countries corporate credit markets have become deeper. In emerging economies, the picture is more mixed: more international openness has led to more leverage but shorter debt maturity. Financial sector reforms have reduced leverage, while their effects on debt maturity have differed depending on the type of reform. Importantly, the differential impact of openness and reforms on the leverage and debt maturity of firms in advanced and emerging market countries also emerges when we distinguish between firms that are potentially financially constrained and firms that are not. These findings suggest that in emerging economies fundamental institutional weaknesses make it difficult to secure the benefits of international financial openness and domestic financial reforms.

Suggested Citation

  • Enrica Detragiache & Gianni De Nicolo & Senay Agca, 2007. "Financial Reforms, Financial Openness, and Corporate Borrowing; International Evidence," IMF Working Papers 07/186, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:07/186

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Muradoğlu, Yaz Gülnur & Onay, Ceylan & Phylaktis, Kate, 2014. "European integration and corporate financing," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 138-157.
    2. Lanau, Sergi, 2011. "Domestic financial regulation and external borrowing," Bank of England working papers 429, Bank of England.
    3. Adenutsi, Deodat E., 2010. "Financial development, bank savings mobilization and economic performance in Ghana: evidence from a multivariate structural VAR," MPRA Paper 29571, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Thomas O'Connor & Thomas Flavin, 2013. "The Effects of Ownership Structure on Corporate Financing Decisions: Evidence from Stock Market Liberalization," International Review of Finance, International Review of Finance Ltd., vol. 13(3), pages 383-405, September.
    5. Flavin, Thomas & O'Connor, Thomas, 2010. "The sequencing of stock market liberalization events and corporate financing decisions," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 183-204, September.
    6. Martin Schmitz, 2011. "Financial reforms and capital flows to emerging Europe," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 38(4), pages 579-605, November.
    7. Martina Chinazom Okorie & David Onyinyechi Agu, 2015. "Does Banking Sector Reform Buy Efficiency Of Banking Sector Operations? ? Evidence from Recent Nigerias Banking Sector Reforms," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 5(2), pages 264-278, February.


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