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Exchange Rate Misalignment; An Application of the Behavioral Equilibrium Exchange Rate (BEER) to Botswana


  • Atsushi Iimi


Botswana's successive currency devaluations and recent move from a fixed to a crawling peg exchange rate regime raise the question of whether the exchange rate might be misaligned with economic fundamentals. This paper, applying the behavioral equilibrium exchange rate (BEER) approach, analyzes the behavior of the real exchange rate for the period 1985-2004. It finds that the pula was undervalued in the later 1980s but overvalued in recent years. Some policy lessons from experiences in other countries with crawling peg arrangements are therefore considered in the context of Botswana.

Suggested Citation

  • Atsushi Iimi, 2006. "Exchange Rate Misalignment; An Application of the Behavioral Equilibrium Exchange Rate (BEER) to Botswana," IMF Working Papers 06/140, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:06/140

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Bassem M Kamar & Jean-Etienne Carlotti & Russell C Krueger, 2009. "Establishing Conversion Values for New Currency Unions; Method and Application to the planned Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Currency Union," IMF Working Papers 09/184, International Monetary Fund.
    2. Shehu Usman Rano, Aliyu, 2007. "Real Exchange Rate Misalignment: An Application of Behavioral Equilibrium Exchange Rate (BEER) to Nigeria," MPRA Paper 10376, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Taizo Motonishi, 2009. "Are the East Asian Currencies still Misaligned? An Analysis Based on Absolute PPP-Income Relationship using Panel Data," Macroeconomics Working Papers 22882, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
    4. Cuiabano, Simone & Opoku-Afari, Maxwell, 2017. "Exchange rate dynamics and monetary integration in the EAC contries," TSE Working Papers 17-848, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).
    5. Pegg, Scott, 2010. "Is there a Dutch disease in Botswana?," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 14-19, March.


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