IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

FDI Flows to Asia; Did the Dragon Crowd Out the Tigers?


  • Benoît Mercereau


China's dramatic success in attracting foreign direct investment (FDI) has raised concerns that it has success diverted FDI from other countries in Asia. We develop a new methodology to estimate crowding out, and we use it to investigate the impact of China's emergence on FDI flows to Asia using data from 14 Asian economies from 1984 to 2002. The results suggest that China did not have much impact on FDI to other countries. In particular, lowincome economies, which compete with China for low-wage investment, and countries with low levels of education or scientific development do not seem to have been especially affected.

Suggested Citation

  • Benoît Mercereau, 2005. "FDI Flows to Asia; Did the Dragon Crowd Out the Tigers?," IMF Working Papers 05/189, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:05/189

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Lane, Philip R. & Milesi-Ferretti, Gian Maria, 2001. "The external wealth of nations: measures of foreign assets and liabilities for industrial and developing countries," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 263-294, December.
    2. Sun, Qian & Tong, Wilson & Yu, Qiao, 2002. "Determinants of foreign direct investment across China," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 79-113, February.
    3. Noorbakhsh, Farhad & Paloni, Alberto & Youssef, Ali, 2001. "Human Capital and FDI Inflows to Developing Countries: New Empirical Evidence," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(9), pages 1593-1610, September.
    4. Ricardo Hausmann & Eduardo Fernández-Arias, 2000. "Foreign Direct Investment: Good Cholesterol?," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 1319, Inter-American Development Bank.
    5. Gastanaga, Victor M. & Nugent, Jeffrey B. & Pashamova, Bistra, 1998. "Host Country Reforms and FDI Inflows: How Much Difference do they Make?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(7), pages 1299-1314, July.
    6. Lensink, Robert & White, Howard, 1998. "Does the Revival of International Private Capital Flows Mean the End of Aid?: An Analysis of Developing Countries' Access to Private Capital," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(7), pages 1221-1234, July.
    7. Alan G. Ahearne & John G. Fernald & Prakash Loungani & John W. Schindler, 2003. "China and emerging Asia: comrades or competitors?," Working Paper Series WP-03-27, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    8. Barry P. Bosworth & Susan M. Collins, 1999. "Capital Flows to Developing Economies: Implications for Saving and Investment," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 30(1), pages 143-180.
    9. Warwick J. McKibbin & Wing Thye Woo, 2003. "The Consequences of China's WTO Accession for Its Neighbors," Asian Economic Papers, MIT Press, vol. 2(2), pages 1-38.
    10. Borensztein, E. & De Gregorio, J. & Lee, J-W., 1998. "How does foreign direct investment affect economic growth?1," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 115-135, June.
    11. Barry Eichengreen & Yeongseop Rhee & Hui Tong, 2004. "The Impact of China on the Exports of Other Asian Countries," NBER Working Papers 10768, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Fernandez-Arias, Eduardo, 1996. "The new wave of private capital inflows: Push or pull?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 389-418, March.
    13. Ricardo Hausmann & Eduardo Fernández-Arias, 2000. "Foreign Direct Investment: Good Cholesterol?," Research Department Publications 4203, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    14. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Dalila NICET-CHENAF (GREThA) & Eric ROUGIER (GREThA), 2007. "Foreign Direct Investment: a comparative study of the attraction of Moroccan and Tunisian economies (In French)," Cahiers du GREThA 2007-02, Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée.
    2. Santiso, Javier & Blázquez, Jorge & Rodríguez, Javier, 2006. "Angel or demon?: China's trade impact on Latin American countries," Revista CEPAL, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), December.
    3. Barry Eichengreen & Hui Tong, 2007. "Is China’s FDI Coming at the Expense of Other Countries?," Chapters,in: Foreign Direct Investment in Europe, chapter 11 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    4. World Bank, "undated". "World Bank East Asia and Pacific Economic Update, April 2014 : Preserving Stability and Promoting Growth," World Bank Other Operational Studies 18378, The World Bank.
    5. Schiffbauer, Marc, 2006. "Theoretical and methodological study on the role of public policies in fostering innovation and growth," Papers DYNREG04, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    6. Resmini, Laura, 2006. "Theoretical and Methodological Study on Comparative Advantages in Dynamic Growth Regions, Convergence and Inequalities Patterns," Papers DYNREG03, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    7. Salike, Nimesh, 2009. "Is China taking away foreign direct investment from other Asian economies?: An analysis of Japanese, US and Korean FDI," MPRA Paper 26583, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Guglielmo Maria Caporale & Carlos Pestana Barros & Bruno Damasio, 2013. "Foreign direct investment in the Asian economies," NCID Working Papers 10/2013, Navarra Center for International Development, University of Navarra.
    9. Yuqing Xing, 2008. "FDI in China: Facts and Impacts on China and the World Economy," Working Papers EMS_2008_03, Research Institute, International University of Japan.
    10. Philip R. Lane & Sergio L. Schmukler, 2006. "The international financial integration of China and India," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Jun.
    11. Christian Dreger & Julian Donaubauer, 2016. "The End of Cheap Labour: Are Foreign Investors Leaving China?," Working Papers id:11277, eSocialSciences.
    12. Aleksynska, Mariya & Havrylchyk, Olena, 2013. "FDI from the south: The role of institutional distance and natural resources," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 38-53.
    13. Barry Eichengreen & Hui Tong, 2007. "Is China’s FDI Coming at the Expense of Other Countries?," Chapters,in: Foreign Direct Investment in Europe, chapter 11 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    14. Olaf Unteroberdoerster & Roberto Pereira Guimarães, 2006. "What’s Driving Private Investment in Malaysia? Aggregate Trends and Firm-Level Evidence," IMF Working Papers 06/190, International Monetary Fund.
    15. 0smail Çevi_ & Burak Çamurdan, 2007. "The Economic Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Countries and Transition Economies," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 46(3), pages 285-299.
    16. SALIKE, Nimesh, 2010. "Investigation of the "China effect" on crowding out of Japanese FDI: An industry-level analysis (1990-2004)," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 582-597, December.
    17. Lu Ming & Zhao Chen & Yongqin Wang & Yan Zhang & Yuan Zhang & Changyuan Luo, 2013. "China’s Economic Development," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 14502.
    18. Tomoko Mori & Hitoshi Sasaki, 2007. "Interdependence of Production and Income in Asia-Pacific Economies: An International Input-Output Approach," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 07-E-26, Bank of Japan.
    19. de Boyrie Maria E, 2010. "Structural Changes, Causality, and Foreign Direct Investments: Evidence from the Asian Crises of 1997," Global Economy Journal, De Gruyter, vol. 9(4), pages 1-40, January.
    20. Resmini, Laura & Siedschlag, Iulia, 2013. "Is foreign direct investment to China crowding out the foreign direct investment to other countries?," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 1-16.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:05/189. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jim Beardow) or (Hassan Zaidi). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.